ISSN 10674136, Russian Journal of Ecology, 2011, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 151–160. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © I. M. Tiunov, A. Yu. Blokhin, P. A. Faiman, 2011, published in Ekologiya, 2011, No. 2, pp. 134–143.
Sakhalin Island is located on the East Asian–Aus
tralasian flyway. Its diverse and extensive wetlands and
coastal biotopes offer a major resting and feeding stop
over opportunity to numerous shorebirds and water
fowl. In particular, this concerns anseriform birds,
which account for 63% of all birds recorded on the
island. Due to the abundance and diversity of biotopes
attracting hundreds of thousands of birds, almost the
whole northeastern coast of Sakhalin, with numerous
lagoontype bays, is on the list of Russian wetlands of
international importance according to the criteria of the
1971 Ramsar Convention (
Since the late 20th century, active development of
natural resources in the Sea of Okhotsk shelf has been
in progress, involving the construction of oil and gas
pipelines, petroleum industrial facilities, etc. This sit
uation stimulated scientists to pay more careful atten
tion to the state of the biota in corresponding regions.
Annual monitoring of nesting and migrating birds in
northern Sakhalin and the mainland part of Tatar
Strait has allowed us to trace changes related not only
to anthropogenic impact (which is definitely strong in
the region) but also to the cyclic pattern of natural pro
cesses and probable regional manifestations of global
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The material was collected in the course of long
term monitoring studies on the biology and abun
dance of waterfowl, which were performed on the
northeastern and northwestern coast of Sakhalin from
April to November of 1988–1991 and 1999—2009
and on the mainland coast of Nevelskoy Strait
between the village of DeKastri to the Tymi River on
the north, mainly in autumn, in 2001–1008 (Fig. 1).
Visual observations were made during the daylight
Data on winds were taken from three databases:
ECMWF ERAInterim (Berrisford and al., 2009),
NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 (Kalnay et al., 1996), and
NCEPDOE Reanalysis 2 (Kanamitsu et al., 2002).
The first database contains provides data on the most
complete set of meteorological and oceanographic
parameters and also on parameters characterizing the
ocean–atmosphere system over the period from 1989
to 2008. The spatial grid spacing in the database is 1.5
degrees latitude and longitude, and the time step is 6 h.
The NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 and NCEPDOE
Reanalysis 2 databases provide meteorological data
over the periods from 1949 and 1979 to the present
time, respectively, with a grid spacing of 2.5 degrees in
As a parameter characterizing the field of winds
over the study region, we used spaceaveraged meridi
) and zonal (
) components of the wind vector:
is the area of the study region (integration is
performed within its boundaries).
Attention should be paid to quantitative indices of
atmospheric circulation, which are widely used in
meteorological research. According to Kats (1959),
these are values proportional to the average rate
Routes and Intensity of Geese Migration over Northern Sakhalin
and the Mainland Part of Tatar Strait
I. M. Tiunov
, A. Yu. Blokhin
, and P. A. Faiman
Institute of Biology and Soil Sciences, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Stoletiya Vladivostoka 159,
Vladivostok, 690022 Russia; email: email@example.com
Sakhalin Ecological Company, ul. Rozhdestvenskaya 63, YuzhnoSakhalinsk, 693007 Russia
Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, 61 Kasuga, Fukuoka, 8168580 Japan
Received March 26, 2010
—The intensity of geese migration has increased since 2005, and its routes have shifted eastward.
The main migration route of the geese previously passed over the northwestern Sea of Okhotsk, far from the
coast; since 2005, however, a major migration flow has been recorded over northern Sakhalin and the main
land part of Tatar Strait. A probable factor accounting for this shift is a change in weather conditions and, in
particular, in the circulation of air masses over the northwestern Sea of Okhotsk.
: geese, migration, flight dates, numbers, northern Sakhalin, Tatar Strait.