1067-4136/05/3602- © 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Ecology, Vol. 36, No. 2, 2005, pp. 127–130. Translated from Ekologiya, No. 2, 2005, pp. 146–149.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2005 by Zaitsev, Kulagin.
Conifers that have perennial needles can play a role
of plant ﬁlters in the city throughout the year. Many
coniferous trees, including Scotch pine, are character-
ized by high gas-consuming capacity (Kulagin, 1974;
, 1978). The state of trees and their resis-
tance to the effects of industrial pollution depend not
only on the state of the assimilatory organs, but also on
the structure and degree of development of the root sys-
tem (Yarmishko, 1997).
Studies on the speciﬁc features of root system for-
mation in Scotch pine (
L.) under con-
ditions of petrochemical pollution in the Ufa Industrial
Center (UIC) (Cisural region) were performed in 1998–
2000. The UIC is polluted by a mixture of agents, with
a prevalence of hydrocarbons. The leading role in the
structure of industrial emissions belongs to sulfur diox-
ide (199400 t), hydrocarbons, and other volatile
organic compounds (174700 t), along with carbon
monoxide (91000 t) (
1998). Emissions of PO Bashneftekhimzavody (Bash-
kir Petrochemical Plants) account for 71% of the total
atmospheric emissions from stationary sources.
The objects of study were even-aged cultures of
Scotch pine belonging to plantations of the UIC protec-
tive zone and located close to a group of oil-processing
plants (OPPs). The age of plantations is 45–50 years.
As a relative control we used
located 40 km southeast of the UIC (southerly and
southwesterly winds prevail in the region). Seven test
areas were established and described following the
standard procedure (Sukachev, 1966); the relative life
state (RLS) of plantations was assessed as described
(Alekseev, 1990). Taxonometric characteristics of the
plantations had previously been brieﬂy described (Zait-
Agrochemical study of soils (dark gray forest soil
and leached chernozem) was performed by conven-
tional methods (
Their characteristics are shown in Table 1. Speciﬁc fea-
tures of root system formation in
studied using the methods of core samples (Orlov,
1967; Krasil’nikov, 1983) and monoliths (Kolesnikov,
1962; Krasil’nikov, 1983).
Core samples were taken with a standard 4-cm soil
drill in ten replications. Six trenches for taking soil
m) were dug between tree rows per-
pendicularly to horizontal roots, 50 cm away from the
trunks. The monoliths were
cm in size.
Roots were extracted from them with pincers and
washed in sieves (mesh size 0.5 mm).
The roots were divided into size fractions proposed
by Rakhtenko (1952) for forest cultures: diameter less
than 1 mm, active and conditionally active (sucking)
roots; diameter 1–3 mm, semiskeletal (conducting)
roots; and over 3 mm, skeletal (conducting) roots.
Root weight was determined in an air-dry state to an
accuracy of 0.01 g. Root density in the soil was calcu-
lated per unit area of the 10-cm soil layer (g/m
The relative life state (RLS) of
tions in the UIC is diagnosed as “signiﬁcantly weak-
ened.” Trees have a poorly formed crown (crown den-
sity is 20–50% of the norm), with dead branches
remaining on trunks; visible needle damage is detected
on 20–60% of needle area, on average. The proportion
of dead standing trees on the plantation is 26–37%, and
the proportion of dying trees is 10–14%. The RLS of
trees in the control area is classiﬁed as “healthy”: trees
have a well-formed crown, trunks are free of dead
branches, and no signiﬁcant needle damage is
observed. The proportion of dead standing trees on the
plantation is 1.6%, and there are no dying trees.
Analysis of core samples showed that the density of
absorbing and semiskeletal roots in the soil increased
with distance from the OPPs. The highest root density
in the UBC was observed at depths of 10–20 cm, where
19–21% of the entire root mass was concentrated. Root
density in the soil of the control area was lower than in
In the polluted area, the total weight of roots (of all
diameters) in all soil horizons is greater than in the con-
trol, except for the surface (0–10 cm) soil horizon,
where it was smaller: 296.42 g/m
vs. 325.35 g/m
Root System Formation in Scotch Pine (
under Conditions of Technogenesis (Ufa Industrial Center)
G. A. Zaitsev and A. Yu. Kulagin
Institute of Biology, Ufa Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences,
pr. Oktyabrya 69, Ufa, 450054 Russia
Received May 7, 2002
: root system, common pine, soil root saturation, oil chemical pollution.