Despite significant advances in our ability to treat cancer, cytotoxic chemotherapy continues to be the mainstay treatment for many solid tumours. Chemotherapy is commonly associated with a raft of largely manageable adverse events; however, gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity (also termed mucositis) remains a significant challenge with little in the way of preventative and therapeutic options. The inability to manage GI complications likely reflects our incomplete understanding of its aetiology and the idiosyncrasies of each chemotherapeutic agent. This review highlights aims to provide a narrative for the involvement of Toll-like receptor (TLR4) in the development of chemotherapy-induced GI mucositis, an already emerging theme within this field. Particular focus will be placed upon the signalling interaction between TLR4 and interleukin (IL)-6. This parallels recent preclinical findings showing that TLR4 knockout mice, which are protected from developing severe GI mucositis, completely lack an IL-6 response. As such, we suggest that this signalling pathway presents as a novel mechanism with potential for therapeutic intervention.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology – Springer Journals
Published: May 29, 2018
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