In this work, we investigated the role of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, the alkaline phosphatase, on the solubilization of detergent-resistant liposomes. In vivo, GPI-anchored proteins are clustered into sphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich membrane domains and this peculiar composition provides cold-detergent-insolubility. To better understand the mechanisms involved in the clustering of these subdomain components, we built a model, namely sphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich liposomes. We show the cold-Triton X-100 resistance of liposomes before and after insertion of GPI-anchored enzyme. When the amount of incorporated enzyme varied, significant changes in membrane stability occurred. Low protein contents into liposomes increased detergent insolubility, whereas high amounts decreased it. Furthermore, significant differences in the detergent-resistance of each lipid were exhibited between liposomes and proteoliposomes. Thus, the enzyme insertion led to a dramatic decrease of cholesterol solubilization, in line with the existence of cholesterol/GPI interactions. Effect of temperature on detergent resistance was also investigated. Liposome solubilization increased with temperature up to a threshold value of 40/45°C. This was also the temperature at which a phase transition of liposome membrane occurred, as evidenced by Laurdan fluorescence. Although the GPI-anchored enzyme insertion modified membrane stability, no change was observed on phase transition. Our work highlights the importance of GPI-anchored proteins in the structure of sphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich membrane domains, in the detergent-insolubility of these peculiar domains, as well as in interaction of GPI proteins with cholesterol.
The Journal of Membrane Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 1, 2003
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