By virtue of their actions on NF-κB, an inflammatory nuclear transcription factor, various cytokines have been documented to play important regulatory roles in determining cardiac function under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Several cytokines including TNF-α, TGF-β, and different interleukins such as IL-1 IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-18 are involved in the development of various inflammatory cardiac pathologies, namely ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiomyopathies. In ischemia-related pathologies, most of the cytokines are released into the circulation and serve as biological markers of inflammation. Furthermore, there is an evidence of their direct role in the pathogenesis of ischemic injury, suggesting cytokines as potential targets for the development of some anti-ischemic therapies. On the other hand, certain cytokines such as IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 are involved in the post-ischemic tissue repair and thus are considered to exert beneficial effects on cardiac function. Conflicting reports regarding the role of some cytokines in inducing cardiac dysfunction in heart failure and different types of cardiomyopathies seem to be due to differences in the nature, duration, and degree of heart disease as well as the concentrations of some cytokines in the circulation. In spite of extensive research work in this field of investigation, no satisfactory anti-cytokine therapy for improving cardiac function in any type of heart disease is available in the literature.
Heart Failure Reviews – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 4, 2018
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