The role of cooperative cell movements has been explored in establishment of regular segregation of the marginal zone of Xenopus laevis embryos into the main axial rudiments: notochord, somites and neural tissue. For this purpose, the following operations were performed at the late blastula-early gastrula stages: (1) isolation of marginal zones, (2) addition of the ventral zone fragments to the marginal zones, (3) dissection of isolated marginal zones along either ventral (a) or dorsal (b) midlines, (4) immediate retransplantation of excised fragments of the suprablastoporal area to the same places without rotation or after 90° rotation, (5) Π-shaped separation of the suprablastoporal area either anteriorly or posteriorly. In experiments 1, 4, and 5, lateromedial convergent cell movements and differentiation of the axial rudiments were suppressed. In experiments 4 and 5, cell movements were reoriented ventrally, the entire embryo architecture was extensively reconstructed, and the axial rudiments were relocated to the blastopore lateral lips. In experiment 3, convergent cell movements were restored and oriented either towards the presumptive embryo midline (a), or in the perpendicular direction (b). In both cases, well developed axial rudiments elongated perpendicularly to cell convergences were formed. If the areas of axial rudiment formation were curved, mesodermal somites and neural tissue were always located on the convex (stretched) and concave (compressed) sides, respectively. We conclude that no stable prepatterning of the marginal zone takes place until at least the midgastrula stage. This prepatterning requires cooperative cell movements and associated mechano-geometric constrains.
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 13, 2007
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