The objective of the present study was to determine if chicken melanoma-differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) senses infectious bursal disease virus infection to induce innate immunity that bridges to adaptive immunity. During IBDV infection in HD11 cells, IBDV titers and RNA loads increased up to 3.4 × 10 7 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL and 1114 ng/µL, respectively, at 24 hours postinfection (hpi). IBDV infection in HD11 cells induced significantly upregulated ( p < 0.05) expression levels of chicken MDA5 (59-fold), interferon-β (IFN-β) (693-fold), dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) (4-fold), 2’, 5’-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) (286-fold), myxovirus resistance gene (Mx) (22-fold), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (5-fold), IL-6 (146-fold), IL-8 (4-fold), IL-10 (4-fold), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (15-fold), and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) (4-fold). Nitric oxide production in the culture supernatants increased significantly ( p < 0.05) up to 6.5 μM at 24 hpi. The expressed chMDA5 and IBDV-derived dsRNA were localized in the cytoplasm of HD11 cells during IBDV infection. ChMDA5-knockdown HD11 cells had significantly higher ( p < 0.05) IBDV RNA loads at 24 hpi and significantly lower ( p < 0.05) nitric oxide production and expression levels of chicken MDA5, IFN-β, PKR, OAS, Mx, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12(p40), IL-18, IL-10, iNOS, MHC class I and CD86 at 24 hpi. In addition, chMDA5 overexpression in HD11 cells resulted in significantly reduced (p < 0.05) IBDV titers and RNA loads and significantly increased ( p < 0.05) nitric oxide production at 16 and 24 hpi. It also resulted in significantly higher ( p < 0.05) expression levels of chicken MDA5, IFN-β, PKR, OAS, Mx, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12(p40), IL-10 and iNOS at 2 hpi. In conclusion, the results indicate that chMDA5 senses IBDV infection in chicken macrophages, and this is associated with IBDV-induced expression of IFN-β and initiation of an innate immune response that in turn activates the adaptive immune response and limits IBDV replication.
Archives of Virology – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 1, 2015
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