Role of 3D Echocardiography in Cardiac Surgery: Strengths and Limitations

Role of 3D Echocardiography in Cardiac Surgery: Strengths and Limitations Curr Anesthesiol Rep (2017) 7:291–298 DOI 10.1007/s40140-017-0226-5 CARDIOVASCULAR ANESTHESIA (J FASSL, SECTION EDITOR) Role of 3D Echocardiography in Cardiac Surgery: Strengths and Limitations 1 1 Edwin Wilberforce Turton & Jörg Ender Published online: 21 July 2017 The Author(s) 2017. This article is an open access publication Abstract Keywords Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) 3D Purpose of Review This review aims to highlight the gen- transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) 3D transthoracic . . eral and specific strengths and limitations of intraopera- echocardiography (TTE) Intraoperative echocardiography . . . tive 3D echocardiography. This article explains the value 3D data sets 3D modes Full volume (FV) Color flow . . . . of real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardi- Doppler (CFD) Real time (RT) Live Zoom Simultaneous . . ography (RT 3D TEE) during cardiac surgery and cardiac multiplane/biplane/X-plane imaging Cardiac surgery . . interventions. Interventions Transcatheter procedures . . . Recent Findings Recently published recommendations Echocardiographer Spatial resolution Temporal resolution . . and guidelines include the use of RT 3D TEE. RT 3 Guidelines and recommendations Valvular surgery Future . . D TEE provides additional value particularly for guid- developments Strengths Limitations ance during cardiac interventions (i.e., transcatheter mi- tral valve repair, left atrial appendix and Current Anesthesiology Reports Springer Journals

Role of 3D Echocardiography in Cardiac Surgery: Strengths and Limitations

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