The behavior of a non-buoyant circular water jet discharged from a contraction nozzle was experimentally investigated. In this experiment, the Reynolds number of the jet, based on the mean velocity results obtained by particle image velocimetry (PIV), ranged from 177 to 5,142. From the experimental results, we found that the cross-sectional profile of the axial velocity for a laminar flow near the nozzle did not show a top-hat distribution, whereas the profiles with Reynolds number higher than 437 were almost top-hat. The length of the zone of flow establishment (ZFE) was found to decrease with increasing Reynolds number. The measured centerline velocity decayed more rapidly and, consequently, approached the theoretical equation earlier near the nozzle as the Reynolds number increased. The decay constant for the centerline velocity of the turbulent cases was relatively lower than that discovered in theory. It is assumed that this probably resulted from the use of the contraction nozzle. Verifying the similarity of the lateral velocity profiles demonstrated that the Gaussian curve was properly approximated only for the turbulent jets and not for the laminar or transitional flows. The jet half width seldom grew for the laminar or transitional flows, whereas it grew with increasing axial distance for the turbulent flows. The spreading rates for the turbulent flows gradually decreased with increasing Reynolds number. The normalized turbulence intensity along the jet centerline increased more rapidly with the axial distance as the Reynolds number increased, and tended to the constant values proposed by previous investigators. The Reynolds shear stress levels were also found to increase as the Reynolds number increased for the turbulent jets.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Apr 29, 2005
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