This paper summarizes the historical and recent research on the aquatic toxicology and bioconcentration potential of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a major flame retardant in electronics. Historical studies on TBBPA are presented in detail, and are compared with more recent research. The historical studies have not been published to date, though they were pivotal in regulatory assessments by the European Union, Canada, and the USA. These assessments have enabled the use of TBBPA as a flame retardant in electronic applications, to the present. The studies were conducted under a Test Rule by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 1987, and were sponsored by member companies of the North American Flame Retardants Alliance (NAFRA) through the American Chemistry Council. The studies were conducted under Good Laboratory Practice procedures, and include 6 acute toxicity tests of TBBPA with fish, invertebrates, algae, and microbes, eight chronic tests, and three bioconcentration studies with fish and invertebrates. Methods and empirical data for each study are detailed in an electronic supplement. Results of the NAFRA studies are compared with recent findings on TBBPA toxicity. Molluscan shell growth may be uniquely sensitive to TBBPA, more sensitive than chronic fish or crustacean toxicity endpoints. Several of the NAFRA studies and several independent studies have reported toxicities exceeding the empirical water solubility limits of TBBPA (in the range of 2.0 mg/L depending on pH). The validity of these results is discussed.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research – Springer Journals
Published: Apr 18, 2018
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