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Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 74, No. 3, 2001, pp. 540 !541. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 74, No. 3,
2001, p. 525.
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2001 by Litvinova.
Geiss, F., Osnovy tonkosloinoi khromatografii
Moscow, 1999, Russian translation of Fundamentals of Thin-Layer Chromatography,
Mamaroneck, NY: Huethig, 1987
Thanks to an open sorbent layer, thin-layer chroma-
tography (TLC) is more simple and versatile tech-
nique as compared to other chromatographic methods.
At the same time the fact that in TLC a sorbent is in
contact with the gas phase makes it more difficult to
describe the partition processes. Because of their com-
plexity the molecular interactions between a sorbent,
sorbate, and solvent in TLC systems are poorly under-
stood, which does not allow formulation of criteria for
a priori decision on optimal solvents and sorbents for
solving a given task. Therefore, knowledge of TLC
fundamentals as well as of the principles common for
all the chromatographic techniques is the necessary
condition for successful application of TLC.
The translation of the worldwide known mono-
graph by Geiss became the first book in Russian de-
voted to the principles of TLC, including new tech-
niques, sorbents, solvents, and methods for optimiza-
tion of TLC procedure.
Russian translation of the monograph was initiated
by V.G. Berezkin. The book was submitted for pub-
lishing in 1989. However, only in 1998 V.G. Berez-
kin and L.N. Kolomiets succeeded (after changing the
publishing house) in organization of printing the mon-
ograph. Conscientious and competent translation of the
book was made by B.P. Lapin and M.A. Koshevnik.
The first chapter of the monograph represents the
guidance to the monograph and comparative examina-
tion of advantages and drawbacks of TLC and liquid
The second chapter gives the background of TLC,
emphasizing the solvent flow in a porous medium
under the action of capillary forces. The factors re-
sponsible for erosion of chromatographic bands are
analyzed. With reference to the works by Giddings
and Guiochon the author examines various methods
for estimating the layer efficiency (mean theoretical
plate height, separation number).
The third chapter is important from the practical
standpoint. It is devoted to representation and analysis
of the TLC data. Attempts are made to assess the ap-
plicability of various methods for correcting R
. A par-
ticular attention is paid to the resolving power equa-
tion. To compare the applicability of different multi-
component eluents to separation of the same test mix-
ture, the author recommends to use the discriminating
power equation. Also a comparative analysis is given
of the potentialities of various elution modes.
With the advent of chemically grafted phases, par-
ticularly reversed phases, the requirements to the layer
activity control became less strict. However, the tradi-
tional sorbents such as silica gel and alumina remain
the most widely popular because of their low cost.
Therefore, the separation quality may depend on the
sorbent activity. In this connection the fourth chapter,
reviewing the properties of TLC sorbents and the
methods for activity control of hydrophilic sorbents, is
interesting and important for understanding the proc-
esses occurring in TLC separations.
The fifth chapter deals with the problems of opti-
mization of R
and the selectivity, i.e., the parameters
characterizing solvents and eluents. The methods for
characterization of the eluting power are examined.
The system solvent!gaseous phase!sorbent is ex-
amined in the sixth chapter, including such topics as
saturation of a TLC box, presaturation of a sorbent
layer and its consequences, and changing composition
of the moving phase. The effects of the temperature,
pH, sorbent layer thickness, quality of a solvent, etc.
are discussed in the seventh and eighths chapters.
The theoretical and practical aspects of gradient
TLC are examined in the ninth chapter.
In the tenth chapter the points considered in the
fourth chapter are analyzed as applied to the problem
of how the results obtained in TLC separations can be
used for optimization of liquid column chromatog-
raphy separations. The author formulates the criteria
of successful application of TLC data to liquid col-
umn chromatography separations and analyses the
commonly spread sources of failure on this way.