Psychiatric Quarterly, Vol. 76, No. 3, Fall 2005 (
REVIEW AND COMPARISON OF THE LONG
Feng Liu, M.D., Ph.D., Rafael Muniz, M.D.,
Haruka Minami, B.A., and Raul R. Silva, M.D.
The stimulants have been the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment for over
ﬁfty years. Methylphenidate is the most frequently prescribed of the stimu-
lant agents. In the past, one of the main drawbacks of these agents was the
abbreviated duration of action. Over the last few years three longer acting
methylphenidate preparations have been released to the market. Though all
these agents contain the same chemical compound they do vary in a number
of ways. In this article we will present how the formulations compare in their
technology and the differences in their delivery systems. We will also compare
the available literature that focus on head to head comparisons in terms of
pharmacokinetics studies and those reports that present efﬁcacy data. Finally,
we will suggest based on a theoretical framework on how to approach selecting
Feng Liu, M.D., Ph.D., Haruka Minami, B.A., and Raul R. Silva, M.D., are afﬁliated
with The Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, New York University School of
Rafael Muniz, M.D., is afﬁliated with Novartis Pharmaceutical, East Hanover, New
Address correspondence to Feng Liu, M.D., Ph.D., NYU School of Medicine, Division
of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 550 First Avenue, NBV 21S6, New York, NY 10016-
9196; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.