Retirement preparation program: evaluation of results

Retirement preparation program: evaluation of results The present study aimed to evaluate the results obtained in the retirement preparation program (RPP) regarding changes in retirement planning behaviors, the meaning of work, and improvement in quality of life. It is a quasi-experimental research, using a pre- and post-test evaluation with a non-equivalent control group, including 82 participants, who were public workers near retirement. Among these, 50 participated in the RPP (experimental group (EG)) and 32 belonged to the control group (CG). All responded to the scale of changes in retirement planning behaviors, the Meaningful Work Scale, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument (WHOQOL-Brief), as well as a Sociodemographic and Occupational Data Questionnaire. The results showed that in the EG, there was an increase in the socio-occupational investment and in the coherence and expressiveness at work throughout the three periods considered, as well as in the quality of life related to the environment in the assessment conducted after the program. Regarding the comparison between the EG and the CG, differences were verified in the socio-occupational investment and in the social utility of work, and such characteristic was higher in the EG during the follow-up. The relevance of the present study lies in the improvement of intervention alternatives to support health policies, seeking to meet the demands of the aging population. Keywords: Retirement, Meaning of work, Quality of life Background when it occurs involuntarily (Kuerbis and Sacco 2012). The onset of retirement life is an experience of great Therefore, it is verified that this moment is permeated transformations and changes. The retired status may by several feelings, sometimes ambivalent, which can have negative and/or positive effects in the worker’s life. lead to apprehension, anxiety, doubts, mood swings, Positive factors are usually associated to the planning of psychosomatic illnesses, and diverse fears, such as the this new phase, which may favor quality of life after re- one of losing the status of “active employee.” tirement from work, maintenance of physical and mental In order to make the work-retirement transition more health, and engagement in leisure activities or new for- smoothly, it is essential that retirement preparation pro- mal or voluntary work (Wang et al. 2011). Retirement grams (RPPs) be proposed in organizations (França and can also be felt as liberating due to the opportunity to Soares 2009; Zanelli et al. 2010). Such programs are complete previously unrealized plans (França 2008), en- characterized by a set of actions and activities for people abling the planning of future projects (Costa and Soares in the near-retirement phase, whom are those retiring 2009). Among the negative factors, national studies within 2 to 5 years. This preparation is aimed at assisting indicated depression and social isolation as motivators people to prepare for the future, not only addressing of suicide among Brazilian elders (Cavalcante and financial aspects but also including a biopsychosocial Minayo 2012; Minayoe et al. 2012), besides socioeco- vision of the human being, embracing the complexity of nomic decline and financial exploitation of family mem- this moment (Pazzim et al. 2016). bers (Minayo et al. 2012). There is evidence that alcohol Despite their relevance, the actions directed to consumption can also increase in retirement, especially retirement planning are still poorly assessed in Brazil (Murta et al. 2014b; Murta et al. 2014a; Nunes 2015). The reasons for the absence of a systematic evaluation may be * Correspondence: tanisepazzim@gmail.com Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (Unisinos), Unisinos Ave - E01-109, related to the lack of knowledge of the evaluation methods São Leopoldo Zip code: 93.022-750, Brazil © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Pazzim and Marin Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2017) 30:24 Page 2 of 10 or to the belief that such undertaking would be infeasible, (Cozby 2009), and a quantitative and longitudinal ap- complex, or costly (Murta et al. 2014b). proach. This design considered an experimental group The evaluation process of RPPs must comprise five (EG) (who participated in the program) and a non- phases: needs assessment, development of programs, effi- equivalent control group (CG) (who did not participate cacy, effectiveness, and dissemination studies (Murta et al. in the program). Both groups were assessed before the 2014b). The needs assessment is the first step in the devel- program (T1) and were monitored after 2 months (T3– opment of a retirement preparation program, and it aims follow-up). The EG also responded the assessment tools to know the reality of work for the identification of the after the termination of the program (T2). targets to be cared for (Murta et al. 2014b). The second The fact that the follow-up was carried out 2 months step, development, consists in the creation of procedures after the intervention was due to the profile of most par- and materials, the establishment of methods, and in the ticipants, whose retirement was expected for the current assessment of their acceptability by the participants year, as well as the right to vacation and bonus leaves. (Murta et al. 2014a). The studies on the development of retirement education programs are monitored by process Participants evaluations, also called formative assessments or monitor- Participants were 82 workers of a municipal public insti- ing assessments. The third step, called efficacy assessment, tution in a major city of south of Brazil, who were near aims to investigate the quality of programs. When asses- retirement (projected for the next 5 years). Among sing the efficacy of an intervention or program, it is these, 50 people composed the EG and 32, the CG. The verified if the achievement of the goals proposed in the EG included workers who voluntarily enrolled in two actions developed was caused by the strategies adopted editions of the program that occurred in 2016. A limit of (Flay et al. 2005; Murta et al. 2014b), and it is recom- 50 workers was established for the EG because in the mended that researchers use at least one control condition last editions of the program, there was a mean of ap- (Flay et al. 2005) related to the comparison of results with proximately 25 participants who completed the research groups of people who did not participate in the interven- for each group with 30 vacancies. All those who partici- tion or who partially participated. The fourth stage, pated in the program agreed to participate. effectiveness assessment, refers to the changes and reach The EG was mostly composed of women (78%), with resulting from the intervention in the real-life environ- mean age of 55.6 years (SD = 5.3), and 56% were mar- ment, and it aims to verify the effects of the implementa- ried/civil union and 84% had children. Regarding educa- tion of the program in the natural environment when tion, there was a predominance of participants with conducted by the people or teams that are not specialists post-graduation (48%) and with incomplete/complete and/or researchers (Abreu 2012; Flay et al. 2005), but higher education (34%). Only 18% had incomplete/ multiplication agents or professionals trained by the devel- complete secondary education. The positions were also opers of the intervention, already submitted to efficacy as- quite diverse, with predominance of administrative as- sessment studies. Finally, the last step in the assessment of sistant (28%), professor (16%), and nurse (8%), and were programs refers to the diffusion, consisting in the transfer linked to several secretariats, mainly from health (28%), of a program with evidence of good results from studies education (20%), and the sanitation department (16%). that meet the efficacy and effectiveness criteria for new Regarding the length of service in the institution, most groups, institutions, and communities. had completed between 21 and 30 years of service Based on the above statements, the objective of the (42%). For 30% of participants, the projected retirement present study was to evaluate the results, especially the date was 2017 and for 26% of them, the actual year of efficacy, obtained in a RPP carried out in a municipal the intervention (2016). It is noteworthy that for the EG, public institution, regarding the outcomes: (a) change in there were 50 participants in T1, 45 participants in T2, retirement planning behaviors, (b) change regarding the and 33 participants in T3. meaning of work, and (c) quality-of-life improvement, The CG, in turn, was composed by other 32 workers which are considered important constructs in the who were selected according to the following criteria: process of retirement, comparing these results between they did not have the opportunity to participate in the a group of public workers who participated in the RPP RPP because there were no vacancies left, which was doc- and a group who did not participate, at the end of the umented by a waiting list organized by the Department of program and 2 months later. Human Resources (n = 5); they enrolled in the course but dropped out before the start of the program (n = 4); selec- Method tion is by convenience according to the time of 5 years for Design retirement (n =23). This is a quasi-experimental study, using a pre- and Most CG participants were women (65.6%), with mean post-test design with a non-equivalent control group age of 56.6 years (SD = 4.7), 53% were married/civil Pazzim and Marin Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2017) 30:24 Page 3 of 10 union, and 93.8% had children. In relation to education, according to the models presented in the literature most had complete/incomplete higher education, (40.7%), (Soares and Costa 2011; Zanelli et al. 2010). The RPP including 31.3% post graduated, 18.8% presenting coordination team has used this questionnaire. complete/incomplete secondary education, and 9.4% complete/incomplete elementary school. The positions Scale of change in retirement planning behavior (SCRPB) were also quite diverse, with predominance of administra- (Leandro-França et al. 2014) tive assistant (28%) and administrator (18.7%), linked to This instrument aims to understand how people progress several Secretariats, most often from Strategic Planning towards the adoption and maintenance of behaviors that and Budget (34.4%), Administration (28%) and Health can improve their health conditions. The scale was con- (15.6%). The period of service at the institution was con- structed considering behaviors that are favorable to the centrated between 11 and 20 years (25%), 21 to 30 years adaptation and to retirement, identified in the literature (40.6%), 31 to 35 years (21.9%), and more than 25 years review (Leandro-França 2012). The SCRPB presents two (12.5%). For 3.1% of participants, the retirement start date factors, factor 1 (occupational-social investment) and fac- was projected to 2016; for 43.8% to 2017, for 28.1%, 2018, tor 2 (investment in autonomy and well-being). Factor 1 for 3.1%, 2019, and for 15.6% of participants, 2020. It includes eight items distributed as follows: participating in should be noted that for the CG in T1, there were 32 par- community groups, investing in projects that can be ticipants and in T3, 31 public workers. adapted/implemented from retirement, taking continuous improvement courses in another area aimed at a second Retirement preparation program career, performing volunteer work in the community, RPP was based on the theory of continuity, part of the dedicating to spiritual or religious practices, having a theory of psychosocial aging, which understands that re- hobby, taking continuous improvement courses in the tirement is a transition that begins before the worker area of practice, and nurturing friendships. Factor 2 shutdown and continues until some years after the event includes seven items: the regular practice of physical itself. It rejects the lack of function of retirees and em- activities, investing time in family life, having financial in- phasizes the importance of voluntary work, paid or re- vestments for the future, practicing leisure activities, placed by other activities that bring them satisfaction investing in the relationship with partner, having a health- (França and Soares 2009). This program consists of nine ier diet, scheduling appointments, and medical check-ups. 4-h meetings, held twice a week, for a 36-h course load, It should be emphasized that the instrument presented as recommended by the literature (Leandro-França satisfactory psychometric characteristics for the current 2016; Zanelli et al. 2010), which indicates that long-term sample (Fayers and Machin 2007). The Cronbach alphas programs be conducted in around 8 to 20 meetings, with obtained were .71 for factor 1 and .79 for factor 2. a minimum of weekly, bi-weekly, or monthly frequency, and a total of approximately 40 h. A multidisciplinary Scale of meaningful work (SMW) (Bendassolli et al. 2015) team of educators, who are employed in the institution, This instrument aims to verify if the work has meaning holds the meetings from the fields of psychology, phil- factors, i.e., each item/factor of this scale evaluates how osophy, social service, accounting, medicine, nutrition, much the person believes that their current work is close physical education, administration, and journalism, that to what they expect it should be to be meaningful. It is are oriented towards thematic that should work and expected, therefore, that the larger the factorial mean of how to organize the meeting by the first author of this each dimension of the construct, the greater the percep- study. The dynamics of each meeting consists in the tion of meaning in work. The results should be deter- presentation of the themes, conceptual exposition, and mined considering each of the six factors that compose discussion, using various strategies of group mobilization it and their respective items: social utility (utility of work (group techniques, presentation of videos, and exercises) to society; α = .77), ethics (existence of justice and fair- so that participants experience the content presented. ness at work; α = .94), freedom (possibility of judgment Table 1 presents the RPP content. to solve problems and to make decisions; α = .87), learning and development (achievement of objectives; Instruments α = .78), quality of relationships (interesting contacts and Questionnaire on sociodemographic and occupational data peer support; α = .73), and coherence and expressiveness This instrument aims to collect information regarding (work corresponds to competencies and professional in- the identification of the participants (age, education, terests, allowing goals to be achieved and people to be marital status, family configuration, position, time of ser- heard; α = .87). The SMW was translated to Portuguese vice, and projected retirement year). The design of the and validated in Brazil. The consistency indexes obtained instrument considered the sociodemographic data out- (Cronbach alphas) were considered satisfactory to the lined by IBGE, and the occupational data were selected current sample. Pazzim and Marin Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2017) 30:24 Page 4 of 10 Table 1 Content of the RPP No. Themes Program content HL 1 Presentation of the RPP Opening with RPP coordination representative 2h Presentation of the RPP (objectives, purpose, and program content) Presentation of participants Survey of expectations Operational combinations Work world and meanings of retirement Socio-historical construction of work 2h Work and formation of social identity Senses and meanings of work Pleasure and suffering at work Meanings connected to retirement: stereotypes and prejudices Idleness and free time 2 Social security aspects Social security: concept, general regime, and special 4h welfare regime Procedures to apply for retirement Benefits and advantages of retirement Registration of contribution time Application and processing of the administrative process of retirement 3 Personal and professional planning Personal and professional planning 4h Post-career 4 Psychological and family aspects Work and subjectivity 4h Building of personal and professional identity Expectations and feelings about retirement The importance of interpersonal relationships and the construction of networks The family’s role in retirement Divorce, depression, anxiety, suicide, and use and abuse of alcohol and drugs 5 The practice of physical activity Retirement as a moment of resumption of physical activity 4h Physical conditioning Choosing the physical activity you like the most 6 Dietary reeducation Retirement and aging 4h Eating habits throughout life Consequences of a poor diet on health Dietary reeducation Nutrients and food groups Daily menu planning and organization 7 Health care in retirement Definition of health 2h Health care Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention Risk and protection factors Prevalent diseases in the elderly population Indications of periodic examinations after the age of 50 Interview with retirees Interview conducted by a journalist with two retirees, 2h usually a man and a woman, one with a higher education and another with high school or technical level 8 Financial planning in retirement Revenue, expenses, funding, investment and indebtedness 4h Fixed, optional, and extra costs Family budget planning and model suggestions 9 Life plan What is a life plan? How to make a life plan? 2h Models of plans Plan maintenance Assessment and Closure Assessment of the program 2h Closure––socializing Pazzim and Marin Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2017) 30:24 Page 5 of 10 World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Data analysis procedures Instrument (WHOQOL-Brief) (The Whoqol Group 1998, The closed questions of the SCRPB, WHOQOL-Brief, adapted by Fleck et al. 2000) and SMW Sociodemographic and Occupational Data This instrument consists of 26 questions, of which two Questionnaire were quantitatively analyzed, considering are questions for global assessment of quality of life, and their absolute and relative distributions, through de- the others represent 24 facets that assess four specific scriptive and inferential statistics, as well as the mea- domains of quality of life. The physical domain evaluates sures of central tendency and variability, with the study pain and discomfort, energy and fatigue, sleep and rest, of normality using the Shappiro Wilk test. In addition, mobility, activity in everyday life, drug dependence and the reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) was calculated for the treatments, and capacity for work (α = .77). The psycho- current sample, and the coefficient was presented in par- logical domain evaluates positive feelings: thinking, entheses at the “Instruments” section. To compare the learning, memory and concentration; self-esteem; body scores between the assessments in T1 and T2, and the image and appearance; negative feelings; and spirituality/ assessments in T1 and T3 of the EG, Student’s t test was religion/personal beliefs (α = .80). The domain of social used for paired data. For the comparison between EG relations evaluates the aspects involved in personal rela- and CG in T1 and T3, Student’s t test for independent tionships, social support, and sexual activity (α = .74). samples was performed. The environmental domain assesses physical security To compare the means assessed over the three times and protection, home environment, financial resources, for the EG (T1, T2, and T3), the variance analysis for health and social care, opportunity to acquire new repeated measurements (one-way ANOVA) and Bonfer- information and skills, participation in recreation/leisure roni’s post hoc test were used. The adequacy of the opportunities, physical environment (pollution/noise/ model was assessed by the homogeneity of variances and traffic/climate), and transport (α = .76). The instrument co-variances using the Levene test and sphericity using has satisfactory characteristics of internal consistency, the Mauchly test. The magnitude of intragroup differ- discriminant validity, criterion validity, concurrent ences was calculated from effect size. An effect size validity, and test-retest reliability. value of .20 to .49 is considered small, while .50 to .79 is a moderate effect and ≥ .80, a large magnitude effect Ethical and data collection procedures (Cohen 1988). The data were analyzed in the Statistical Initially, contact was made with the Administration Package for Social Sciences program, version 20.0, and Secretariat, which is responsible for the implementation of for the statistical decision criteria, significance was the RPP at the institution contacted, to request the consent. established at 5%. After authorization, the project was submitted and ap- proved by the Research Ethics Committee of Universidade Results do Vale dos Sinos, according to Resolution no. 466/12 of The results were organized in two stages. The first stage the National Health Council, which regulates research with included the comparisons between the evaluated times human beings (CAEE 51408715.3.0000.5344). (T1, T2, and T3), considering only the EG. The second The first author of this study, who also followed the stage consists in the evaluation and comparison between development of the intervention, conducted all data col- the EG and CG in T1 and T3. lection. In the first day of the program, the objectives and procedures of this research were presented to the Stage 1: comparisons between times assessed in the EG EG. The CG participants, accessed as previously de- Table 2 shows that considering the EG analysis that scribed, were contacted individually for scheduling. We compared the means between the T1, T2, and T3 assess- made it clear that they could obtain any clarification ments, there was a significant difference in the SCRPB whenever wished, to decide freely on their participation. regarding the socio-occupational investment (p < .003), The Free and Informed Consent Form (TCLE) was indicating a significant increase of the mean over time, signed, ensuring the volunteer privacy and con- i.e., the mean in T3 (3.79 ± 0.62) was significantly higher fidentiality of the data, and they responded the research than the mean in T2 (3.20 ± 1.03), which, in turn, was instruments. higher than the mean in T1 (2.86 ± 1.04). For the After 2 months of the end of the program, participants SMW, only the factor coherence and expressivity at from the EG and the CG were invited for a lecture with work (p < .002) presented higher mean values in T3 SEBRAE on the topic “Senior Entrepreneurship,” and (5.01 ± 1.01). For the WHOQOL-Brief, the only sig- the follow-up was conducted at this occasion. For those nificant difference occurred in the environmental domain who were not able to participate in the event, contact (p < .04), for which the mean in T2 (3.91 ± 0.56) was sig- was made for individual scheduling or questionnaires nificantly higher than the mean values in T1 (3.74 ± 0.59) were sent by e-mail. and T3 (3.78 ± 0.61). The perception of quality of life by Pazzim and Marin Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2017) 30:24 Page 6 of 10 Table 2 Mean and standard deviation for the instruments SCRPB, SMW, and WHOQOL-Brief, according to the assessments in T1, T2, and T3 for the EG Instruments and dimensions Period of assessment n Mean Standard deviation p SCRPB––socio-occupational investment T1 21 2.86 1.04 .003 T2 3.20 1.03 T3 3.79 0.62 SCRPB––investment in autonomy and well-being T1 23 4.68 0.94 .502 T2 4.58 1.02 T3 4.53 0.87 SMW––social utility T1 25 5.58 0.67 .921 T2 5.63 0.44 T3 5.60 0.56 SMW––ethics at work T1 26 4.43 1.02 .595 T2 4.41 1.27 T3 4.54 1.08 SMW––freedom at work T1 28 5.03 0.91 .446 T2 4.86 0.88 T3 4.89 0.69 SMW––learning and development at work T1 27 4.88 1.00 .578 T2 5.03 0.87 T3 5.00 0.90 SMW––quality of relationships at work T1 26 4.97 0.98 .096 T2 4.92 0.89 T3 5.19 0.72 SMW––coherence and expressiveness at work T1 24 4.35 0.95 .002 T2 5.00 0.94 T3 5.01 1.01 WHOQOL––physical domain T1 26 3.96 0.65 .388 T2 4.03 0.59 T3 3.89 0.55 WHOQOL––psychological domain T1 23 3.94 0.68 .449 T2 4.04 0.69 T3 3.93 0.61 WHOQOL––social domain T1 25 3.69 0.78 .539 T2 3.84 0.79 T3 3.77 0.63 WHOQOL––environment domain T1 24 3.74 0.59 .043 T2 3.91 0.56 T3 3.78 0.61 Analysis of variance for repeated measures (one-way)––Bonferroni’s post hoc test the majority of participants in T1 was identified as good much variation between T1 and T2 either (T1; satisfied (54%), very good (24%), and neither bad nor good (22%). 57.1%, neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 18.4%, very satis- In T2, the proportions were maintained (good 53.8%, very fied 12.2%, neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 21.1%, very good 25.6%, and neither bad nor good 20.5%). In T3, the satisfied 18.4%, and dissatisfied 13.2%). There were more distribution was slightly different (good 57.6%, very good distinct perceptions in T3; satisfied (51.5%), very satisfied 24.2%, neither bad nor good 15.2%, and bad 3%). As to (27.3%), neither satisfied nor dissatisfied (12.1%), and how satisfied they were with their health, there was not dissatisfied (9.1%). Pazzim and Marin Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2017) 30:24 Page 7 of 10 Stage 2: assessment and comparison of the EG and the CG by the majority of the CG participants in T1 and T2 did The instruments investigated in this study had their infor- not appear to be different (T1; good 65.6%, very good mation compared between the EG and the CG. According 21.9%, and neither bad nor good 12.5%. T3; good 66.7%, to the results presented in Table 3, in the SCRPB, there very good 20%, neither bad nor good 10%, and bad 3.3%). was no significant difference (p < .44) between the groups As for health satisfaction, the same trend was observed for the social-occupational investment in T1; however, in (T1; satisfied 50%, very satisfied 25%, neither satisfied nor T3, the average in the EG (3.74 ± 0.58) was significantly dissatisfied 12.5%, dissatisfied 9.4%, and very dissatisfied higher than in the CG (3.11 ± 0.93, p <.002). Similar 3.1%. T3; satisfied 53.3%, very satisfied 23.3%, neither sat- results occurred in the SMW for the item social utility, in isfied nor dissatisfied 13.3%, and dissatisfied 10%). which the means in T1 did not differ representatively (p < .143); however, in T3, a difference was verified Discussion (EG 5.63 ± 0.53 vs. CG 4.93 ± 1.17, p < .005). Also, in the The objective of the present article was to evaluate the SMW, the item freedom at work presented significant results obtained in a RPP carried out in a municipal difference, indicating a higher mean for the EG both in T1 public institution, regarding the expected outcomes: (a) (EG 4.79 ± 1.02 vs. CG 4.13 ± 1.35; p = .01) and in T3 changes in retirement planning behaviors, (b) changes in (EG 4.91 ± 0.71 vs. CG 4.26 ± 1.24; p = .01). In the the meaning of work, and (c) quality-of-life improve- WHOQOL-Brief, when comparing the variations ob- ment. The results were compared between a group of served between the EG and CG, the means were not rep- public workers who participated in a RPP and another resentative in this sample. The perception of quality of life group that did not, before, at the end, and 2 months Table 3 Mean and standard deviation for scores of the instruments SCRPB, SMW, and WHOQOL-Brief, according to the assessments T1 and T3 on the total of valid cases Instruments and dimensions Period of Groups assessment Experimental––EG Control––CG p n Mean Standard deviation n Mean Standard deviation SCRPB––socio-occupational investment T1 40 3.15 1.10 32 2.94 1.18 .442 T3 32 3.74 0.58 30 3.11 0.93 .002 SCRPB––investment in autonomy and well-being T1 43 4.67 0.91 32 4.58 1.03 .692 T3 32 4.68 0.85 30 4.63 1.11 .842 SMW––social utility T1 50 5.43 0.89 32 5.10 1.11 .143 T3 32 5.63 0.53 30 4.93 1.17 .005 SMW––ethics at work T1 50 4.40 1.26 32 4.36 1.40 .512 T3 34 4.56 1.14 30 4.40 1.23 .131 SMW––freedom at work T1 50 4.79 1.02 32 4.13 1.35 .013 T3 34 4.91 0.71 30 4.26 1.24 .015 SMW––learning and development T1 50 4.99 1.02 32 4.55 1.35 .219 T3 32 5.04 0.92 30 4.53 1.27 .098 SMW––quality of relations T1 50 4.98 0.88 32 4.88 0.93 .633 T3 32 5.24 0.67 30 4.98 0.71 .133 SMW–coherence and expressiveness at work T1 48 4.30 0.99 31 4.48 1.43 .703 T3 33 4.95 0.99 30 4.52 1.27 .262 WHOQOL––physical domain T1 48 3.94 0.62 32 3.85 0.84 .573 T3 33 3.93 0.56 30 3.89 0.69 .797 WHOQOL––psychological domain T1 49 3.93 0.58 32 3.93 0.53 .904 T3 33 3.92 0.58 30 4.08 0.50 .917 WHOQOL––social domain T1 44 3.73 0.70 32 3.91 0.68 .269 T3 32 3.76 0.63 30 3.99 0.65 .165 WHOQOL––environment domain T1 47 3.67 0.57 32 3.65 0.52 .666 T3 32 3.67 0.66 30 3.65 0.66 .788 Minimal level of significance in the comparisons between groups; Student’s t test for independent groups Pazzim and Marin Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2017) 30:24 Page 8 of 10 after the program. Data on efficacy were analyzed con- means in T1 and T3. The environment domain measures sidering times T1 and T2, T1 and T3, and T2 and T3. physical security and protection, home environment, finan- Regarding the outcome change in retirement planning cial resources, health and social care, opportunity to learn behaviors in the EG, there was a difference in the social- new information and skills, participation in recreation/leis- occupational investment, with an increase over time. ure activities, and physical environment (pollution/noise/ Comparing with the CG, the same dimension was also traffic/climate), aspects that are addressed in the program. higher for the EG in T3. Therefore, the data indicated This reveals the need to emphasize this theme in the RPP that the program encouraged its participants to engage so that the changes produced will remain over time. in activities other than work, raising interest in partici- Regarding the sociodemographic profile, it is noteworthy pation in community groups and investment in other that the female gender and the diversity of positions stand projects that can be adapted/implemented after retire- out. The fact that most participants are women corrobo- ment, such as continuous improvement courses or vol- rates the literature that indicates that women seek more in- untary work. formation and care services related to their own health and Concerning autonomy and well-being, which evaluates that of the family (Leandro-França et al. 2015). There are behavioral changes in daily life, such as the practice of also studies indicating that women plan retirement more physical activities, having a healthier diet, or having than men and invest more in healthy behaviors, such as the medical appointments and check-ups, no changes were practice of leisure activities and involvement in observed among the participants in the program, interpersonal relationships (Petkoska and Earl 2009). although such themes have been worked on. This indi- Leandro-França et al. (2015) emphasize that making retire- cates the need to improve the way this content has been ment planning interventions that are more responsive to worked in the program. Furthermore, it is possible to as- the male audience are rare. Thus, it becomes relevant to de- sume that the time elapsed between the intervention velop means to attract men to the RPPs or to make them and the follow-up may not have been sufficient to verify more suitable to the demands and limitations of this group. significant changes in the subjects’ behaviors regarding Regarding positions, they ranged from operational to stra- this factor. tegic level. The difference in relation to the labor activities In relation to the changes in the meaning of work, it influences different factors such as greater or lower recogni- was verified that the coherence and expressiveness factor tion, workload, and stress in daily activities (Bressan et al. at work stood out in the EG. According to the results, 2012), as well as greater adaptation to retirement, physical work seems to be meaningful for both the EG and the health decline, health problems in the family, financial short- CG. However, all perceived the respect for human dig- ages, and occupation and leisure activities (Leandro-França nity, equality, valorization of justice, and preservation of et al. 2014). Therefore, it is possible to think that such speci- rights in their work environment as weak, an aspect that ficities may have reflected in the evaluated outcomes. requires attention in the discussions of future editions of Evaluating the efficacy of the RPP, it was verified that in the RPP. relation to the occupational investment, coherence and On the other hand, freedom at work was different be- expressivity at work, and quality related to the environ- tween the groups from T1, indicating that the EG pre- ment, the EG presented important gains. There was also sented more freedom to solve problems and make an improvement in the perception of health satisfaction, decisions. Since the meaning of work is a major aspect although the perception of quality of life declined in rela- of people’s experience, its absence or frailty certainly tion to the classifications good and very good, which may impairs the performance of activities, insofar as they be because participants were faced with questions related become only repetitive movements or purposeless ac- to aging, which they had not considered yet. tions because activities depend on the interpretation of Finally, the data presented in this research reinforce the reason for their realization (purpose) and must be the need for a systematic and continuous evaluation of connected to the self-representation of people themselves, RPPs to provide important data in decision-making and that is, to their identity (Bendassolli and Borges-Andrade to achieve effective results (Costa and Castanhar 2003). 2015). In this sense, it can be inferred that for the CG, the Hence, the importance of investing in actions that pro- participation in the RPP, which is a long-term activity, mote the quality of life of the citizens, since it reduces would involve having greater freedom and autonomy at the possibilities of disease, leads to savings for public work, characteristics that were not being perceived in and private health services (França and Soares 2009). their work environment, which may have hampered their participation. Conclusions In relation to the quality-of-life improvement, the only There is a consensus in the retirement literature that this significant difference occurred in the environmental do- process represents one of the most significant life-course main, with the mean in T2 significantly higher than the transitions (Costa and Soares 2009; Duarte and Melo-Silva Pazzim and Marin Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2017) 30:24 Page 9 of 10 2009; França 2009; Soares et al. 2007). Therefore, it is es- prevalent causes, with the purpose of implementing ac- sential that organizations propose Retirement Preparation tions to prevent the main diseases identified (Pinto, Programs that are validated empirically. In this sense, the Schneider, Souza, & Seadi, 2016). present study contributed with the accomplishment of a It is known that, while life expectancy increases, the quantitative evaluation with an experimental group and a number of benefits granted by the Brazilian Social three-time control group, considering that the national lit- Security System also increase and that this is a critical erature has presented qualitative evaluations without point for the government and the organizations. In follow-up (Murta et al. 2008; Soares and Costa 2011; Brazil, a social security reform is being discussed, whose Zanelli et al. 2010). objective is to maintain the sustainability of public ac- It is important to emphasize the scientific and social counts given the growing deficit of the social security sys- relevance of investigating retirement planning behaviors, tem. Therefore, retirement is undoubtedly a current the meaning of work, and the quality of life in a group and important issue that will affect the lives of all of public workers in the last stage of their careers, in Brazilian citizens. However, to ensure a decent life for order to propose actions and policies in the area of citizens, it will be necessary to rethink politics, insti- health, seeking to meet the demands of the aging popu- tutions, services, and practices as well as to prepare lation. Psychology becomes especially important within citizens in the short, medium, and long term for this this context, as it can help people gain a better under- new reality of retirement. standing of the moment they are experiencing to assist them in this preparation and transition by promoting Endnote healthy habits. Each year, four classes are offered, with 30 vacancies Some limitations, other than those already mentioned, each; however, due to the cost containment, this year, may have affected the results obtained, such as the loss only two classes were offered. of participants throughout the study. This fact is predict- Funding able in longitudinal studies, considering the cost of The study has its own funding. participation and the changes that may occur over time (Kazdin 2010). In the EG, there were justified with- Authors’ contributions drawals due to the request to leave earlier because of The authors collaborated mutually from conception to the development and review of the study for its publication. Both authors read and approved the other commitments (n = 5), work leave due to vacations final manuscript. (n = 2), work commitments (n = 1), and retirement itself. In the follow-up, the loss was even more important due Authors’ information to the 17 withdrawals (10 due to vacations or premium Tanise Amália Pazzim Psychologist, graduated from Universidade Luterana do Brasil - ULBRA (2004), with leave, 1 due to work commitment, and another due to a background in Organizational Psychology at the Global Development Institute - retirement). The repetition of instruments at different IDG (2005) and in Group Dynamics Coordination at the Brazilian Society of Group moments may also have affected the results since there Dynamics - SBDG (2007). She is a specialist in Public Management by the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS (2009) and Master in Clinical Psychology may be a memory effect, inducing participants to mark by the University of Vale do Rio dos Sinos - UNISINOS (2015/2016). the same items at different moments of evaluation Angela Helena Marin (Mednick et al. 1984). Another factor that may have af- Psychologist, graduated from the Federal University of Santa Maria (2002) and holds a degree in psychology from the Federal University of Rio Grande fected the results was the time available to respond to do Sul (2007). She has a specialization in clinical psychology from the Porto the instruments (30 min) due to the scheduling of the Alegre Family Institute (2008), a master’s degree (2004) and a doctorate program. Finally, it is possible that the disinterest in pre- (2009) in Psychology from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. Currently, she is a clinical psychologist and teacher of undergraduate and paring for retirement moderated the change in relation post-graduate degree in psychology from the University of Vale do Rio dos to the control group, confused with the role of non- Sinos. She has experience in Psychology with emphasis in clinical psychology participation in the intervention. and human and family development, working mainly on the following topics: social development in childhood and adolescence, family and As recommendations for new research agendas, it is processes of prevention and health promotion. suggested that future studies use an experimental design with a more robust sample, more equally stratified in re- Ethics approval and consent to participate The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Universidade do lation to gender, and cover the different levels of educa- Vale do Rio dos Sinos - Unisinos (Project 15/265) and meets all regulations of tion, income, and professional categories. Longitudinal Resolution 466/12 of the National Health Council / Brazil. studies are also recommended to follow participants after retirement, comparing those who participated in Consent for publication Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for the publication RPPs and those who did not participate in any prepara- of this report and any accompanying images. tory activity. It is still important to compare the mortal- ity rates between individuals who participated in RPPs Competing interests and those who did not, as well as to analyze the The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Pazzim and Marin Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2017) 30:24 Page 10 of 10 Publisher’sNote Leandro-França, C. (2016). Efeito de Programas de Preparação para Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in Aposentadoria: um estudo experimental [Effect of Retirement Preparation published maps and institutional affiliations. Programs: an experimental study]. Brasília, Brasil: Dissertação de Doutorado, Universidade de Brasília. Received: 27 September 2017 Accepted: 17 November 2017 Leandro-França, C., Murta, S. G., & Iglesias, F. (2014). Planejamento da aposentadoria: uma escala de mudança de comportamento [Retirement planning: a scale of changing behavior]. Revista Brasileira de Orientação, 15(1), 75–84. Leandro-França, C., Santos, J., & Pedralho, M. (2015). Planejamento para aposentadoria: References Relato de intervenção em um grupo de homens de meia idade [Planning for Abreu, S. (2012). Prevenção em saúde mental no Brasil na perspectiva da literatura retirement: report of intervention in a group of middle-aged men]. In S. G. Murta, e de especialistas da área [Mental health prevention in Brazil from the C. Leandro-França, Santos, K. B. & Polejack, L. Prevenção e promoção em saúde perspective of literature and specialists in the area]. 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RAP – Revista de Administração Pública, 37,969–992. programa de preparo para a aposentadoria e envelhecimento bem-sucedido Cozby, P. C. (2009). Métodos de pesquisa em ciências do comportamento [Research [Evaluation of a retirement preparedness and successful aging program]. In S. Methods in Behavioral Sciences]. São Paulo: Atlas. G. Murta (Org.), Grupos psicoeducativas: aplicações em múltiplos contextos Duarte, C. V., & Melo-Silva, L. L. (2009). Expectativas diante da aposentadoria: um (pp. 181-196). Goiânia, GO: Porã Cultural. estudo de acompanhamento em momento de transição [Expectations Nunes, C. O. A. T. (2015). Programa de preparação de planos de vida para a before retirement: a follow-up study at the time of transition]. Revista aposentadoria: avaliação de necessidades, processo e efeito [Retirement life plan Brasileira de Orientação Profissional, 10(1), 45–54. preparation program: needs assessment, process and effect]. São Paulo, Brasil: Tese Fayers, P. M., & Machin, D. (2007). 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Retirement preparation program: evaluation of results

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Copyright © 2018 by The Author(s)
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Psychology; Psychology Research; Psychological Methods/Evaluation; Health Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Biological Psychology; Psychometrics
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Abstract

The present study aimed to evaluate the results obtained in the retirement preparation program (RPP) regarding changes in retirement planning behaviors, the meaning of work, and improvement in quality of life. It is a quasi-experimental research, using a pre- and post-test evaluation with a non-equivalent control group, including 82 participants, who were public workers near retirement. Among these, 50 participated in the RPP (experimental group (EG)) and 32 belonged to the control group (CG). All responded to the scale of changes in retirement planning behaviors, the Meaningful Work Scale, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument (WHOQOL-Brief), as well as a Sociodemographic and Occupational Data Questionnaire. The results showed that in the EG, there was an increase in the socio-occupational investment and in the coherence and expressiveness at work throughout the three periods considered, as well as in the quality of life related to the environment in the assessment conducted after the program. Regarding the comparison between the EG and the CG, differences were verified in the socio-occupational investment and in the social utility of work, and such characteristic was higher in the EG during the follow-up. The relevance of the present study lies in the improvement of intervention alternatives to support health policies, seeking to meet the demands of the aging population. Keywords: Retirement, Meaning of work, Quality of life Background when it occurs involuntarily (Kuerbis and Sacco 2012). The onset of retirement life is an experience of great Therefore, it is verified that this moment is permeated transformations and changes. The retired status may by several feelings, sometimes ambivalent, which can have negative and/or positive effects in the worker’s life. lead to apprehension, anxiety, doubts, mood swings, Positive factors are usually associated to the planning of psychosomatic illnesses, and diverse fears, such as the this new phase, which may favor quality of life after re- one of losing the status of “active employee.” tirement from work, maintenance of physical and mental In order to make the work-retirement transition more health, and engagement in leisure activities or new for- smoothly, it is essential that retirement preparation pro- mal or voluntary work (Wang et al. 2011). Retirement grams (RPPs) be proposed in organizations (França and can also be felt as liberating due to the opportunity to Soares 2009; Zanelli et al. 2010). Such programs are complete previously unrealized plans (França 2008), en- characterized by a set of actions and activities for people abling the planning of future projects (Costa and Soares in the near-retirement phase, whom are those retiring 2009). Among the negative factors, national studies within 2 to 5 years. This preparation is aimed at assisting indicated depression and social isolation as motivators people to prepare for the future, not only addressing of suicide among Brazilian elders (Cavalcante and financial aspects but also including a biopsychosocial Minayo 2012; Minayoe et al. 2012), besides socioeco- vision of the human being, embracing the complexity of nomic decline and financial exploitation of family mem- this moment (Pazzim et al. 2016). bers (Minayo et al. 2012). There is evidence that alcohol Despite their relevance, the actions directed to consumption can also increase in retirement, especially retirement planning are still poorly assessed in Brazil (Murta et al. 2014b; Murta et al. 2014a; Nunes 2015). The reasons for the absence of a systematic evaluation may be * Correspondence: tanisepazzim@gmail.com Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (Unisinos), Unisinos Ave - E01-109, related to the lack of knowledge of the evaluation methods São Leopoldo Zip code: 93.022-750, Brazil © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Pazzim and Marin Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2017) 30:24 Page 2 of 10 or to the belief that such undertaking would be infeasible, (Cozby 2009), and a quantitative and longitudinal ap- complex, or costly (Murta et al. 2014b). proach. This design considered an experimental group The evaluation process of RPPs must comprise five (EG) (who participated in the program) and a non- phases: needs assessment, development of programs, effi- equivalent control group (CG) (who did not participate cacy, effectiveness, and dissemination studies (Murta et al. in the program). Both groups were assessed before the 2014b). The needs assessment is the first step in the devel- program (T1) and were monitored after 2 months (T3– opment of a retirement preparation program, and it aims follow-up). The EG also responded the assessment tools to know the reality of work for the identification of the after the termination of the program (T2). targets to be cared for (Murta et al. 2014b). The second The fact that the follow-up was carried out 2 months step, development, consists in the creation of procedures after the intervention was due to the profile of most par- and materials, the establishment of methods, and in the ticipants, whose retirement was expected for the current assessment of their acceptability by the participants year, as well as the right to vacation and bonus leaves. (Murta et al. 2014a). The studies on the development of retirement education programs are monitored by process Participants evaluations, also called formative assessments or monitor- Participants were 82 workers of a municipal public insti- ing assessments. The third step, called efficacy assessment, tution in a major city of south of Brazil, who were near aims to investigate the quality of programs. When asses- retirement (projected for the next 5 years). Among sing the efficacy of an intervention or program, it is these, 50 people composed the EG and 32, the CG. The verified if the achievement of the goals proposed in the EG included workers who voluntarily enrolled in two actions developed was caused by the strategies adopted editions of the program that occurred in 2016. A limit of (Flay et al. 2005; Murta et al. 2014b), and it is recom- 50 workers was established for the EG because in the mended that researchers use at least one control condition last editions of the program, there was a mean of ap- (Flay et al. 2005) related to the comparison of results with proximately 25 participants who completed the research groups of people who did not participate in the interven- for each group with 30 vacancies. All those who partici- tion or who partially participated. The fourth stage, pated in the program agreed to participate. effectiveness assessment, refers to the changes and reach The EG was mostly composed of women (78%), with resulting from the intervention in the real-life environ- mean age of 55.6 years (SD = 5.3), and 56% were mar- ment, and it aims to verify the effects of the implementa- ried/civil union and 84% had children. Regarding educa- tion of the program in the natural environment when tion, there was a predominance of participants with conducted by the people or teams that are not specialists post-graduation (48%) and with incomplete/complete and/or researchers (Abreu 2012; Flay et al. 2005), but higher education (34%). Only 18% had incomplete/ multiplication agents or professionals trained by the devel- complete secondary education. The positions were also opers of the intervention, already submitted to efficacy as- quite diverse, with predominance of administrative as- sessment studies. Finally, the last step in the assessment of sistant (28%), professor (16%), and nurse (8%), and were programs refers to the diffusion, consisting in the transfer linked to several secretariats, mainly from health (28%), of a program with evidence of good results from studies education (20%), and the sanitation department (16%). that meet the efficacy and effectiveness criteria for new Regarding the length of service in the institution, most groups, institutions, and communities. had completed between 21 and 30 years of service Based on the above statements, the objective of the (42%). For 30% of participants, the projected retirement present study was to evaluate the results, especially the date was 2017 and for 26% of them, the actual year of efficacy, obtained in a RPP carried out in a municipal the intervention (2016). It is noteworthy that for the EG, public institution, regarding the outcomes: (a) change in there were 50 participants in T1, 45 participants in T2, retirement planning behaviors, (b) change regarding the and 33 participants in T3. meaning of work, and (c) quality-of-life improvement, The CG, in turn, was composed by other 32 workers which are considered important constructs in the who were selected according to the following criteria: process of retirement, comparing these results between they did not have the opportunity to participate in the a group of public workers who participated in the RPP RPP because there were no vacancies left, which was doc- and a group who did not participate, at the end of the umented by a waiting list organized by the Department of program and 2 months later. Human Resources (n = 5); they enrolled in the course but dropped out before the start of the program (n = 4); selec- Method tion is by convenience according to the time of 5 years for Design retirement (n =23). This is a quasi-experimental study, using a pre- and Most CG participants were women (65.6%), with mean post-test design with a non-equivalent control group age of 56.6 years (SD = 4.7), 53% were married/civil Pazzim and Marin Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2017) 30:24 Page 3 of 10 union, and 93.8% had children. In relation to education, according to the models presented in the literature most had complete/incomplete higher education, (40.7%), (Soares and Costa 2011; Zanelli et al. 2010). The RPP including 31.3% post graduated, 18.8% presenting coordination team has used this questionnaire. complete/incomplete secondary education, and 9.4% complete/incomplete elementary school. The positions Scale of change in retirement planning behavior (SCRPB) were also quite diverse, with predominance of administra- (Leandro-França et al. 2014) tive assistant (28%) and administrator (18.7%), linked to This instrument aims to understand how people progress several Secretariats, most often from Strategic Planning towards the adoption and maintenance of behaviors that and Budget (34.4%), Administration (28%) and Health can improve their health conditions. The scale was con- (15.6%). The period of service at the institution was con- structed considering behaviors that are favorable to the centrated between 11 and 20 years (25%), 21 to 30 years adaptation and to retirement, identified in the literature (40.6%), 31 to 35 years (21.9%), and more than 25 years review (Leandro-França 2012). The SCRPB presents two (12.5%). For 3.1% of participants, the retirement start date factors, factor 1 (occupational-social investment) and fac- was projected to 2016; for 43.8% to 2017, for 28.1%, 2018, tor 2 (investment in autonomy and well-being). Factor 1 for 3.1%, 2019, and for 15.6% of participants, 2020. It includes eight items distributed as follows: participating in should be noted that for the CG in T1, there were 32 par- community groups, investing in projects that can be ticipants and in T3, 31 public workers. adapted/implemented from retirement, taking continuous improvement courses in another area aimed at a second Retirement preparation program career, performing volunteer work in the community, RPP was based on the theory of continuity, part of the dedicating to spiritual or religious practices, having a theory of psychosocial aging, which understands that re- hobby, taking continuous improvement courses in the tirement is a transition that begins before the worker area of practice, and nurturing friendships. Factor 2 shutdown and continues until some years after the event includes seven items: the regular practice of physical itself. It rejects the lack of function of retirees and em- activities, investing time in family life, having financial in- phasizes the importance of voluntary work, paid or re- vestments for the future, practicing leisure activities, placed by other activities that bring them satisfaction investing in the relationship with partner, having a health- (França and Soares 2009). This program consists of nine ier diet, scheduling appointments, and medical check-ups. 4-h meetings, held twice a week, for a 36-h course load, It should be emphasized that the instrument presented as recommended by the literature (Leandro-França satisfactory psychometric characteristics for the current 2016; Zanelli et al. 2010), which indicates that long-term sample (Fayers and Machin 2007). The Cronbach alphas programs be conducted in around 8 to 20 meetings, with obtained were .71 for factor 1 and .79 for factor 2. a minimum of weekly, bi-weekly, or monthly frequency, and a total of approximately 40 h. A multidisciplinary Scale of meaningful work (SMW) (Bendassolli et al. 2015) team of educators, who are employed in the institution, This instrument aims to verify if the work has meaning holds the meetings from the fields of psychology, phil- factors, i.e., each item/factor of this scale evaluates how osophy, social service, accounting, medicine, nutrition, much the person believes that their current work is close physical education, administration, and journalism, that to what they expect it should be to be meaningful. It is are oriented towards thematic that should work and expected, therefore, that the larger the factorial mean of how to organize the meeting by the first author of this each dimension of the construct, the greater the percep- study. The dynamics of each meeting consists in the tion of meaning in work. The results should be deter- presentation of the themes, conceptual exposition, and mined considering each of the six factors that compose discussion, using various strategies of group mobilization it and their respective items: social utility (utility of work (group techniques, presentation of videos, and exercises) to society; α = .77), ethics (existence of justice and fair- so that participants experience the content presented. ness at work; α = .94), freedom (possibility of judgment Table 1 presents the RPP content. to solve problems and to make decisions; α = .87), learning and development (achievement of objectives; Instruments α = .78), quality of relationships (interesting contacts and Questionnaire on sociodemographic and occupational data peer support; α = .73), and coherence and expressiveness This instrument aims to collect information regarding (work corresponds to competencies and professional in- the identification of the participants (age, education, terests, allowing goals to be achieved and people to be marital status, family configuration, position, time of ser- heard; α = .87). The SMW was translated to Portuguese vice, and projected retirement year). The design of the and validated in Brazil. The consistency indexes obtained instrument considered the sociodemographic data out- (Cronbach alphas) were considered satisfactory to the lined by IBGE, and the occupational data were selected current sample. Pazzim and Marin Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2017) 30:24 Page 4 of 10 Table 1 Content of the RPP No. Themes Program content HL 1 Presentation of the RPP Opening with RPP coordination representative 2h Presentation of the RPP (objectives, purpose, and program content) Presentation of participants Survey of expectations Operational combinations Work world and meanings of retirement Socio-historical construction of work 2h Work and formation of social identity Senses and meanings of work Pleasure and suffering at work Meanings connected to retirement: stereotypes and prejudices Idleness and free time 2 Social security aspects Social security: concept, general regime, and special 4h welfare regime Procedures to apply for retirement Benefits and advantages of retirement Registration of contribution time Application and processing of the administrative process of retirement 3 Personal and professional planning Personal and professional planning 4h Post-career 4 Psychological and family aspects Work and subjectivity 4h Building of personal and professional identity Expectations and feelings about retirement The importance of interpersonal relationships and the construction of networks The family’s role in retirement Divorce, depression, anxiety, suicide, and use and abuse of alcohol and drugs 5 The practice of physical activity Retirement as a moment of resumption of physical activity 4h Physical conditioning Choosing the physical activity you like the most 6 Dietary reeducation Retirement and aging 4h Eating habits throughout life Consequences of a poor diet on health Dietary reeducation Nutrients and food groups Daily menu planning and organization 7 Health care in retirement Definition of health 2h Health care Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention Risk and protection factors Prevalent diseases in the elderly population Indications of periodic examinations after the age of 50 Interview with retirees Interview conducted by a journalist with two retirees, 2h usually a man and a woman, one with a higher education and another with high school or technical level 8 Financial planning in retirement Revenue, expenses, funding, investment and indebtedness 4h Fixed, optional, and extra costs Family budget planning and model suggestions 9 Life plan What is a life plan? How to make a life plan? 2h Models of plans Plan maintenance Assessment and Closure Assessment of the program 2h Closure––socializing Pazzim and Marin Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2017) 30:24 Page 5 of 10 World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Data analysis procedures Instrument (WHOQOL-Brief) (The Whoqol Group 1998, The closed questions of the SCRPB, WHOQOL-Brief, adapted by Fleck et al. 2000) and SMW Sociodemographic and Occupational Data This instrument consists of 26 questions, of which two Questionnaire were quantitatively analyzed, considering are questions for global assessment of quality of life, and their absolute and relative distributions, through de- the others represent 24 facets that assess four specific scriptive and inferential statistics, as well as the mea- domains of quality of life. The physical domain evaluates sures of central tendency and variability, with the study pain and discomfort, energy and fatigue, sleep and rest, of normality using the Shappiro Wilk test. In addition, mobility, activity in everyday life, drug dependence and the reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) was calculated for the treatments, and capacity for work (α = .77). The psycho- current sample, and the coefficient was presented in par- logical domain evaluates positive feelings: thinking, entheses at the “Instruments” section. To compare the learning, memory and concentration; self-esteem; body scores between the assessments in T1 and T2, and the image and appearance; negative feelings; and spirituality/ assessments in T1 and T3 of the EG, Student’s t test was religion/personal beliefs (α = .80). The domain of social used for paired data. For the comparison between EG relations evaluates the aspects involved in personal rela- and CG in T1 and T3, Student’s t test for independent tionships, social support, and sexual activity (α = .74). samples was performed. The environmental domain assesses physical security To compare the means assessed over the three times and protection, home environment, financial resources, for the EG (T1, T2, and T3), the variance analysis for health and social care, opportunity to acquire new repeated measurements (one-way ANOVA) and Bonfer- information and skills, participation in recreation/leisure roni’s post hoc test were used. The adequacy of the opportunities, physical environment (pollution/noise/ model was assessed by the homogeneity of variances and traffic/climate), and transport (α = .76). The instrument co-variances using the Levene test and sphericity using has satisfactory characteristics of internal consistency, the Mauchly test. The magnitude of intragroup differ- discriminant validity, criterion validity, concurrent ences was calculated from effect size. An effect size validity, and test-retest reliability. value of .20 to .49 is considered small, while .50 to .79 is a moderate effect and ≥ .80, a large magnitude effect Ethical and data collection procedures (Cohen 1988). The data were analyzed in the Statistical Initially, contact was made with the Administration Package for Social Sciences program, version 20.0, and Secretariat, which is responsible for the implementation of for the statistical decision criteria, significance was the RPP at the institution contacted, to request the consent. established at 5%. After authorization, the project was submitted and ap- proved by the Research Ethics Committee of Universidade Results do Vale dos Sinos, according to Resolution no. 466/12 of The results were organized in two stages. The first stage the National Health Council, which regulates research with included the comparisons between the evaluated times human beings (CAEE 51408715.3.0000.5344). (T1, T2, and T3), considering only the EG. The second The first author of this study, who also followed the stage consists in the evaluation and comparison between development of the intervention, conducted all data col- the EG and CG in T1 and T3. lection. In the first day of the program, the objectives and procedures of this research were presented to the Stage 1: comparisons between times assessed in the EG EG. The CG participants, accessed as previously de- Table 2 shows that considering the EG analysis that scribed, were contacted individually for scheduling. We compared the means between the T1, T2, and T3 assess- made it clear that they could obtain any clarification ments, there was a significant difference in the SCRPB whenever wished, to decide freely on their participation. regarding the socio-occupational investment (p < .003), The Free and Informed Consent Form (TCLE) was indicating a significant increase of the mean over time, signed, ensuring the volunteer privacy and con- i.e., the mean in T3 (3.79 ± 0.62) was significantly higher fidentiality of the data, and they responded the research than the mean in T2 (3.20 ± 1.03), which, in turn, was instruments. higher than the mean in T1 (2.86 ± 1.04). For the After 2 months of the end of the program, participants SMW, only the factor coherence and expressivity at from the EG and the CG were invited for a lecture with work (p < .002) presented higher mean values in T3 SEBRAE on the topic “Senior Entrepreneurship,” and (5.01 ± 1.01). For the WHOQOL-Brief, the only sig- the follow-up was conducted at this occasion. For those nificant difference occurred in the environmental domain who were not able to participate in the event, contact (p < .04), for which the mean in T2 (3.91 ± 0.56) was sig- was made for individual scheduling or questionnaires nificantly higher than the mean values in T1 (3.74 ± 0.59) were sent by e-mail. and T3 (3.78 ± 0.61). The perception of quality of life by Pazzim and Marin Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2017) 30:24 Page 6 of 10 Table 2 Mean and standard deviation for the instruments SCRPB, SMW, and WHOQOL-Brief, according to the assessments in T1, T2, and T3 for the EG Instruments and dimensions Period of assessment n Mean Standard deviation p SCRPB––socio-occupational investment T1 21 2.86 1.04 .003 T2 3.20 1.03 T3 3.79 0.62 SCRPB––investment in autonomy and well-being T1 23 4.68 0.94 .502 T2 4.58 1.02 T3 4.53 0.87 SMW––social utility T1 25 5.58 0.67 .921 T2 5.63 0.44 T3 5.60 0.56 SMW––ethics at work T1 26 4.43 1.02 .595 T2 4.41 1.27 T3 4.54 1.08 SMW––freedom at work T1 28 5.03 0.91 .446 T2 4.86 0.88 T3 4.89 0.69 SMW––learning and development at work T1 27 4.88 1.00 .578 T2 5.03 0.87 T3 5.00 0.90 SMW––quality of relationships at work T1 26 4.97 0.98 .096 T2 4.92 0.89 T3 5.19 0.72 SMW––coherence and expressiveness at work T1 24 4.35 0.95 .002 T2 5.00 0.94 T3 5.01 1.01 WHOQOL––physical domain T1 26 3.96 0.65 .388 T2 4.03 0.59 T3 3.89 0.55 WHOQOL––psychological domain T1 23 3.94 0.68 .449 T2 4.04 0.69 T3 3.93 0.61 WHOQOL––social domain T1 25 3.69 0.78 .539 T2 3.84 0.79 T3 3.77 0.63 WHOQOL––environment domain T1 24 3.74 0.59 .043 T2 3.91 0.56 T3 3.78 0.61 Analysis of variance for repeated measures (one-way)––Bonferroni’s post hoc test the majority of participants in T1 was identified as good much variation between T1 and T2 either (T1; satisfied (54%), very good (24%), and neither bad nor good (22%). 57.1%, neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 18.4%, very satis- In T2, the proportions were maintained (good 53.8%, very fied 12.2%, neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 21.1%, very good 25.6%, and neither bad nor good 20.5%). In T3, the satisfied 18.4%, and dissatisfied 13.2%). There were more distribution was slightly different (good 57.6%, very good distinct perceptions in T3; satisfied (51.5%), very satisfied 24.2%, neither bad nor good 15.2%, and bad 3%). As to (27.3%), neither satisfied nor dissatisfied (12.1%), and how satisfied they were with their health, there was not dissatisfied (9.1%). Pazzim and Marin Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2017) 30:24 Page 7 of 10 Stage 2: assessment and comparison of the EG and the CG by the majority of the CG participants in T1 and T2 did The instruments investigated in this study had their infor- not appear to be different (T1; good 65.6%, very good mation compared between the EG and the CG. According 21.9%, and neither bad nor good 12.5%. T3; good 66.7%, to the results presented in Table 3, in the SCRPB, there very good 20%, neither bad nor good 10%, and bad 3.3%). was no significant difference (p < .44) between the groups As for health satisfaction, the same trend was observed for the social-occupational investment in T1; however, in (T1; satisfied 50%, very satisfied 25%, neither satisfied nor T3, the average in the EG (3.74 ± 0.58) was significantly dissatisfied 12.5%, dissatisfied 9.4%, and very dissatisfied higher than in the CG (3.11 ± 0.93, p <.002). Similar 3.1%. T3; satisfied 53.3%, very satisfied 23.3%, neither sat- results occurred in the SMW for the item social utility, in isfied nor dissatisfied 13.3%, and dissatisfied 10%). which the means in T1 did not differ representatively (p < .143); however, in T3, a difference was verified Discussion (EG 5.63 ± 0.53 vs. CG 4.93 ± 1.17, p < .005). Also, in the The objective of the present article was to evaluate the SMW, the item freedom at work presented significant results obtained in a RPP carried out in a municipal difference, indicating a higher mean for the EG both in T1 public institution, regarding the expected outcomes: (a) (EG 4.79 ± 1.02 vs. CG 4.13 ± 1.35; p = .01) and in T3 changes in retirement planning behaviors, (b) changes in (EG 4.91 ± 0.71 vs. CG 4.26 ± 1.24; p = .01). In the the meaning of work, and (c) quality-of-life improve- WHOQOL-Brief, when comparing the variations ob- ment. The results were compared between a group of served between the EG and CG, the means were not rep- public workers who participated in a RPP and another resentative in this sample. The perception of quality of life group that did not, before, at the end, and 2 months Table 3 Mean and standard deviation for scores of the instruments SCRPB, SMW, and WHOQOL-Brief, according to the assessments T1 and T3 on the total of valid cases Instruments and dimensions Period of Groups assessment Experimental––EG Control––CG p n Mean Standard deviation n Mean Standard deviation SCRPB––socio-occupational investment T1 40 3.15 1.10 32 2.94 1.18 .442 T3 32 3.74 0.58 30 3.11 0.93 .002 SCRPB––investment in autonomy and well-being T1 43 4.67 0.91 32 4.58 1.03 .692 T3 32 4.68 0.85 30 4.63 1.11 .842 SMW––social utility T1 50 5.43 0.89 32 5.10 1.11 .143 T3 32 5.63 0.53 30 4.93 1.17 .005 SMW––ethics at work T1 50 4.40 1.26 32 4.36 1.40 .512 T3 34 4.56 1.14 30 4.40 1.23 .131 SMW––freedom at work T1 50 4.79 1.02 32 4.13 1.35 .013 T3 34 4.91 0.71 30 4.26 1.24 .015 SMW––learning and development T1 50 4.99 1.02 32 4.55 1.35 .219 T3 32 5.04 0.92 30 4.53 1.27 .098 SMW––quality of relations T1 50 4.98 0.88 32 4.88 0.93 .633 T3 32 5.24 0.67 30 4.98 0.71 .133 SMW–coherence and expressiveness at work T1 48 4.30 0.99 31 4.48 1.43 .703 T3 33 4.95 0.99 30 4.52 1.27 .262 WHOQOL––physical domain T1 48 3.94 0.62 32 3.85 0.84 .573 T3 33 3.93 0.56 30 3.89 0.69 .797 WHOQOL––psychological domain T1 49 3.93 0.58 32 3.93 0.53 .904 T3 33 3.92 0.58 30 4.08 0.50 .917 WHOQOL––social domain T1 44 3.73 0.70 32 3.91 0.68 .269 T3 32 3.76 0.63 30 3.99 0.65 .165 WHOQOL––environment domain T1 47 3.67 0.57 32 3.65 0.52 .666 T3 32 3.67 0.66 30 3.65 0.66 .788 Minimal level of significance in the comparisons between groups; Student’s t test for independent groups Pazzim and Marin Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2017) 30:24 Page 8 of 10 after the program. Data on efficacy were analyzed con- means in T1 and T3. The environment domain measures sidering times T1 and T2, T1 and T3, and T2 and T3. physical security and protection, home environment, finan- Regarding the outcome change in retirement planning cial resources, health and social care, opportunity to learn behaviors in the EG, there was a difference in the social- new information and skills, participation in recreation/leis- occupational investment, with an increase over time. ure activities, and physical environment (pollution/noise/ Comparing with the CG, the same dimension was also traffic/climate), aspects that are addressed in the program. higher for the EG in T3. Therefore, the data indicated This reveals the need to emphasize this theme in the RPP that the program encouraged its participants to engage so that the changes produced will remain over time. in activities other than work, raising interest in partici- Regarding the sociodemographic profile, it is noteworthy pation in community groups and investment in other that the female gender and the diversity of positions stand projects that can be adapted/implemented after retire- out. The fact that most participants are women corrobo- ment, such as continuous improvement courses or vol- rates the literature that indicates that women seek more in- untary work. formation and care services related to their own health and Concerning autonomy and well-being, which evaluates that of the family (Leandro-França et al. 2015). There are behavioral changes in daily life, such as the practice of also studies indicating that women plan retirement more physical activities, having a healthier diet, or having than men and invest more in healthy behaviors, such as the medical appointments and check-ups, no changes were practice of leisure activities and involvement in observed among the participants in the program, interpersonal relationships (Petkoska and Earl 2009). although such themes have been worked on. This indi- Leandro-França et al. (2015) emphasize that making retire- cates the need to improve the way this content has been ment planning interventions that are more responsive to worked in the program. Furthermore, it is possible to as- the male audience are rare. Thus, it becomes relevant to de- sume that the time elapsed between the intervention velop means to attract men to the RPPs or to make them and the follow-up may not have been sufficient to verify more suitable to the demands and limitations of this group. significant changes in the subjects’ behaviors regarding Regarding positions, they ranged from operational to stra- this factor. tegic level. The difference in relation to the labor activities In relation to the changes in the meaning of work, it influences different factors such as greater or lower recogni- was verified that the coherence and expressiveness factor tion, workload, and stress in daily activities (Bressan et al. at work stood out in the EG. According to the results, 2012), as well as greater adaptation to retirement, physical work seems to be meaningful for both the EG and the health decline, health problems in the family, financial short- CG. However, all perceived the respect for human dig- ages, and occupation and leisure activities (Leandro-França nity, equality, valorization of justice, and preservation of et al. 2014). Therefore, it is possible to think that such speci- rights in their work environment as weak, an aspect that ficities may have reflected in the evaluated outcomes. requires attention in the discussions of future editions of Evaluating the efficacy of the RPP, it was verified that in the RPP. relation to the occupational investment, coherence and On the other hand, freedom at work was different be- expressivity at work, and quality related to the environ- tween the groups from T1, indicating that the EG pre- ment, the EG presented important gains. There was also sented more freedom to solve problems and make an improvement in the perception of health satisfaction, decisions. Since the meaning of work is a major aspect although the perception of quality of life declined in rela- of people’s experience, its absence or frailty certainly tion to the classifications good and very good, which may impairs the performance of activities, insofar as they be because participants were faced with questions related become only repetitive movements or purposeless ac- to aging, which they had not considered yet. tions because activities depend on the interpretation of Finally, the data presented in this research reinforce the reason for their realization (purpose) and must be the need for a systematic and continuous evaluation of connected to the self-representation of people themselves, RPPs to provide important data in decision-making and that is, to their identity (Bendassolli and Borges-Andrade to achieve effective results (Costa and Castanhar 2003). 2015). In this sense, it can be inferred that for the CG, the Hence, the importance of investing in actions that pro- participation in the RPP, which is a long-term activity, mote the quality of life of the citizens, since it reduces would involve having greater freedom and autonomy at the possibilities of disease, leads to savings for public work, characteristics that were not being perceived in and private health services (França and Soares 2009). their work environment, which may have hampered their participation. Conclusions In relation to the quality-of-life improvement, the only There is a consensus in the retirement literature that this significant difference occurred in the environmental do- process represents one of the most significant life-course main, with the mean in T2 significantly higher than the transitions (Costa and Soares 2009; Duarte and Melo-Silva Pazzim and Marin Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2017) 30:24 Page 9 of 10 2009; França 2009; Soares et al. 2007). Therefore, it is es- prevalent causes, with the purpose of implementing ac- sential that organizations propose Retirement Preparation tions to prevent the main diseases identified (Pinto, Programs that are validated empirically. In this sense, the Schneider, Souza, & Seadi, 2016). present study contributed with the accomplishment of a It is known that, while life expectancy increases, the quantitative evaluation with an experimental group and a number of benefits granted by the Brazilian Social three-time control group, considering that the national lit- Security System also increase and that this is a critical erature has presented qualitative evaluations without point for the government and the organizations. In follow-up (Murta et al. 2008; Soares and Costa 2011; Brazil, a social security reform is being discussed, whose Zanelli et al. 2010). objective is to maintain the sustainability of public ac- It is important to emphasize the scientific and social counts given the growing deficit of the social security sys- relevance of investigating retirement planning behaviors, tem. Therefore, retirement is undoubtedly a current the meaning of work, and the quality of life in a group and important issue that will affect the lives of all of public workers in the last stage of their careers, in Brazilian citizens. However, to ensure a decent life for order to propose actions and policies in the area of citizens, it will be necessary to rethink politics, insti- health, seeking to meet the demands of the aging popu- tutions, services, and practices as well as to prepare lation. Psychology becomes especially important within citizens in the short, medium, and long term for this this context, as it can help people gain a better under- new reality of retirement. standing of the moment they are experiencing to assist them in this preparation and transition by promoting Endnote healthy habits. Each year, four classes are offered, with 30 vacancies Some limitations, other than those already mentioned, each; however, due to the cost containment, this year, may have affected the results obtained, such as the loss only two classes were offered. of participants throughout the study. This fact is predict- Funding able in longitudinal studies, considering the cost of The study has its own funding. participation and the changes that may occur over time (Kazdin 2010). In the EG, there were justified with- Authors’ contributions drawals due to the request to leave earlier because of The authors collaborated mutually from conception to the development and review of the study for its publication. Both authors read and approved the other commitments (n = 5), work leave due to vacations final manuscript. (n = 2), work commitments (n = 1), and retirement itself. In the follow-up, the loss was even more important due Authors’ information to the 17 withdrawals (10 due to vacations or premium Tanise Amália Pazzim Psychologist, graduated from Universidade Luterana do Brasil - ULBRA (2004), with leave, 1 due to work commitment, and another due to a background in Organizational Psychology at the Global Development Institute - retirement). The repetition of instruments at different IDG (2005) and in Group Dynamics Coordination at the Brazilian Society of Group moments may also have affected the results since there Dynamics - SBDG (2007). She is a specialist in Public Management by the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS (2009) and Master in Clinical Psychology may be a memory effect, inducing participants to mark by the University of Vale do Rio dos Sinos - UNISINOS (2015/2016). the same items at different moments of evaluation Angela Helena Marin (Mednick et al. 1984). Another factor that may have af- Psychologist, graduated from the Federal University of Santa Maria (2002) and holds a degree in psychology from the Federal University of Rio Grande fected the results was the time available to respond to do Sul (2007). She has a specialization in clinical psychology from the Porto the instruments (30 min) due to the scheduling of the Alegre Family Institute (2008), a master’s degree (2004) and a doctorate program. Finally, it is possible that the disinterest in pre- (2009) in Psychology from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. Currently, she is a clinical psychologist and teacher of undergraduate and paring for retirement moderated the change in relation post-graduate degree in psychology from the University of Vale do Rio dos to the control group, confused with the role of non- Sinos. She has experience in Psychology with emphasis in clinical psychology participation in the intervention. and human and family development, working mainly on the following topics: social development in childhood and adolescence, family and As recommendations for new research agendas, it is processes of prevention and health promotion. suggested that future studies use an experimental design with a more robust sample, more equally stratified in re- Ethics approval and consent to participate The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Universidade do lation to gender, and cover the different levels of educa- Vale do Rio dos Sinos - Unisinos (Project 15/265) and meets all regulations of tion, income, and professional categories. Longitudinal Resolution 466/12 of the National Health Council / Brazil. studies are also recommended to follow participants after retirement, comparing those who participated in Consent for publication Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for the publication RPPs and those who did not participate in any prepara- of this report and any accompanying images. tory activity. It is still important to compare the mortal- ity rates between individuals who participated in RPPs Competing interests and those who did not, as well as to analyze the The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Pazzim and Marin Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2017) 30:24 Page 10 of 10 Publisher’sNote Leandro-França, C. (2016). Efeito de Programas de Preparação para Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in Aposentadoria: um estudo experimental [Effect of Retirement Preparation published maps and institutional affiliations. Programs: an experimental study]. Brasília, Brasil: Dissertação de Doutorado, Universidade de Brasília. Received: 27 September 2017 Accepted: 17 November 2017 Leandro-França, C., Murta, S. G., & Iglesias, F. (2014). Planejamento da aposentadoria: uma escala de mudança de comportamento [Retirement planning: a scale of changing behavior]. Revista Brasileira de Orientação, 15(1), 75–84. Leandro-França, C., Santos, J., & Pedralho, M. (2015). Planejamento para aposentadoria: References Relato de intervenção em um grupo de homens de meia idade [Planning for Abreu, S. (2012). Prevenção em saúde mental no Brasil na perspectiva da literatura retirement: report of intervention in a group of middle-aged men]. In S. G. Murta, e de especialistas da área [Mental health prevention in Brazil from the C. Leandro-França, Santos, K. B. & Polejack, L. Prevenção e promoção em saúde perspective of literature and specialists in the area]. 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Psicologia: Reflexão e CríticaSpringer Journals

Published: Dec 8, 2017

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