Biol Invasions https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-018-1775-3 INVASION NOTE Restructuring of a mutualism following introduction of Australian ﬁg trees and pollinating wasps to Europe and the USA . . . E. J. Morgan T. L. Sutton C. T. Darwell J. M. Cook Received: 7 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 May 2018 Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018 Abstract Figs and ﬁg-pollinating wasps are obligate introduced range. We therefore used sampling of mutualists that require each other to complete sexual pollinators from mainland Spain, Tenerife and Cali- reproduction. However, landscapers can establish fornia (USA) and molecular studies to characterize the populations of ﬁg trees outside their native ranges by restructured mutualism and compare it with the native propagation through exported seeds, seedlings or range. In the native range, the plant is pollinated by cuttings. Once mature, these trees could be colonized ﬁve wasp species that form the Pleistodontes imperi- by pollinating wasps and/or various non-pollinating alis complex. However, all wasps in the introduced wasps that also develop in ﬁgs. In recent decades, the ranges belonged to just one of these species (P. Australian endemic Ficus rubiginosa has been planted imperialis sp. 1). Moreover, their mtDNA diversity widely in the Mediterranean region
Biological Invasions – Springer Journals
Published: May 30, 2018
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