Respiratory syncytial virus infection induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in epithelial cells

Respiratory syncytial virus infection induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in epithelial... Increased gelatinolytic activity was observed in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-infected HEp-2 cells by using zymography. The anti-matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) antibody specifically reduced the gelatinolytic activity suggesting that the increased gelatinolytic activity was due to the MMP-9. It was also supported by the results from immunofluorescent staining, treatment of MMP inhibitors, and RSV infection of the cell clones that were transfected with plasmids to express more MMP-9 and tissue type inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). The gelatinolytic activity of extracellular MMP-9 in RSV-infected HEp-2 cells increased 1.5 ± 0.2 fold compared with the control (p < 0.01). Cell surface MMP-9 expression was also clearly detected by immunofluorescent staining. Treatment with 1,10-phenanthroline (0.05 mM), ethylenediamine-tetraacetate (EDTA) (1.5 mM), and penta- O -galloyl-β-D-glucose (PGG) (3.3 µM) inhibited RSV multiplication as well as syncytia formation. Furthermore, the average syncytia size increased when the cells expressing more MMP-9 were infected by RSV. In contrast, syncytia formation was inhibited in the cells manipulated to express TIMP-1. Thus, this study concludes that although RSV infection induces MMP-9, which can enhance the syncytia formation leading to RSV multiplication and spread it can be inhibited by MMP inhibitors. Archives of Virology Springer Journals

Respiratory syncytial virus infection induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in epithelial cells

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