Respiratory syncytial virus and influenza are the key viral pathogens in children <2years hospitalized with bronchiolitis and pneumonia in Islamabad Pakistan

Respiratory syncytial virus and influenza are the key viral pathogens in children <2years... Pneumonia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Comprehensive surveillance data are needed to review the prevention and control strategies. We conducted active surveillance of acute lower respiratory infections among children aged <2 years hospitalized at two hospitals of Islamabad, Pakistan. Viral etiology was determined using real-time PCR on respiratory specimens collected during March 2011-April 2012. The overall mean age was 7.83 ± 5.25 months while no statistical difference between age or sex distribution of patients with positive and negative viral etiology (p > 0.05). The average weight of the study group was 6.1 ± 2.25 kg. ≥1 viral pathogens were detected in 75% cases. Major respiratory viruses included RSV-A: 44%, RSV-B: 23%, Influenza-A: 24.5%, Influenza-B: 7%, Adenovirus: 8.4% and HmPV: 5.2%. A single, dual or multiple viral pathogens were detected in 43%, 27% and 5.2% patients respectively. Common symptoms were cough (95%), apnoea (84%), fever (78%), wheeze (64.5%), nasal congestion (55%) and rhinorrhea (48%). Among the RSV positive cases, 2-6 months age group had highest detection rate for RSV-A (30%, n = 21/69) and RSV-B (20%, n = 14/69) while patients infected with Influenza-A were in 2.1-6 months age group (61%, 23/38). Statistically significant difference was observed between RSV-positive and negative cases for nutrition status (p = 0.001), cigarette/wood smoke exposure (p = 0.001) and concomitant clinical findings. Most patients had successful outcome on combination therapy with bronchodilators, inhaled steroids and antibiotics. Our findings underscore high burden of ALRI in Pakistan. Interventions targeting viral pathogens coupled with improved diagnostic approaches are critical for better prevention and control. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Virology Springer Journals

Respiratory syncytial virus and influenza are the key viral pathogens in children <2years hospitalized with bronchiolitis and pneumonia in Islamabad Pakistan

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 by Springer-Verlag Wien
Subject
Biomedicine; Virology; Medical Microbiology; Infectious Diseases
ISSN
0304-8608
eISSN
1432-8798
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00705-016-3146-7
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Pneumonia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Comprehensive surveillance data are needed to review the prevention and control strategies. We conducted active surveillance of acute lower respiratory infections among children aged <2 years hospitalized at two hospitals of Islamabad, Pakistan. Viral etiology was determined using real-time PCR on respiratory specimens collected during March 2011-April 2012. The overall mean age was 7.83 ± 5.25 months while no statistical difference between age or sex distribution of patients with positive and negative viral etiology (p > 0.05). The average weight of the study group was 6.1 ± 2.25 kg. ≥1 viral pathogens were detected in 75% cases. Major respiratory viruses included RSV-A: 44%, RSV-B: 23%, Influenza-A: 24.5%, Influenza-B: 7%, Adenovirus: 8.4% and HmPV: 5.2%. A single, dual or multiple viral pathogens were detected in 43%, 27% and 5.2% patients respectively. Common symptoms were cough (95%), apnoea (84%), fever (78%), wheeze (64.5%), nasal congestion (55%) and rhinorrhea (48%). Among the RSV positive cases, 2-6 months age group had highest detection rate for RSV-A (30%, n = 21/69) and RSV-B (20%, n = 14/69) while patients infected with Influenza-A were in 2.1-6 months age group (61%, 23/38). Statistically significant difference was observed between RSV-positive and negative cases for nutrition status (p = 0.001), cigarette/wood smoke exposure (p = 0.001) and concomitant clinical findings. Most patients had successful outcome on combination therapy with bronchodilators, inhaled steroids and antibiotics. Our findings underscore high burden of ALRI in Pakistan. Interventions targeting viral pathogens coupled with improved diagnostic approaches are critical for better prevention and control.

Journal

Archives of VirologySpringer Journals

Published: Nov 24, 2016

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