The ability to survive under extreme environmental conditions was studied in the adults of the heart sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant). At seawater temperatures of 13.3 to 14.8°C and salinity of 33.2–33.4‰, being devoid of the possibility to burrow into the sand or eat, some sea urchins died on day 5 and all individuals had perished by the end of day 8. At a temperature of 19°C, the salinity tolerance range of adults was limited to 33–28‰. Only 30 to 20% of sea urchins transferred to a solid substrate survived for 7 days at a salinity of 33 to 24‰, but all of them perished toward the end of day 8.
Russian Journal of Marine Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 5, 2006
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