Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 9, pp. 1611−1615.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © D.V. Onishchenko, V.V. Chakov, 2011, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 9, pp. 1562−1566.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Renewable Vegetable Raw Materials as a Base for Preparing
Versatile Functional Nanocomposites
D. V. Onishchenko
and V. V. Chakov
Far-Eastern State Technical University (Kuibyshev Far-Eastern Polytechnic Institute), Vladivostok, Russia
Institute for Water and Environmental Problems, Far-Eastern Branch,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Khabarovsk, Russia
Received February 3, 2011
Abstract—A power-saving technology was developed for preparing functional nanocomposites from renewable
vegetable raw materials and nanosized elements.
It was shown in [1–5] that carbon modiﬁ cations pre-
pared by pyrolysis of renewable vegetable raw materi-
als, agricultural wastes, can be used as promising anode
matrices for lithium-ion (polymer) batteries (LIBs). The
amorphous, mixed, or crystalline carbon obtained in the
process exhibits a valuable set of characteristics which
favorably affect the electrochemical, physicochemical,
mechanical, and technological properties of anode elec-
trodes in their operation in the LIB system. Among key
properties essential for attaining high operation charac-
teristics of anode electrodes, we should note high purity
of carbon (99.4–99.6%) and highly developed surface
of carbon modiﬁ cations prepared from renewable vege-
table raw materials. In addition, each kind of renewable
vegetable raw materials has speciﬁ c chemical composi-
tion, and a natural composite containing a valuable set
of microelements is formed already in the course of the
carbon matrix preparation [1–5].
Among promising kinds of vegetable raw materials
for preparing energy-efﬁ cient anode matrices are peat
moss and peat. They give high carbon yield in pyrolysis,
99.81–99.97%, which is even somewhat higher than
in pyrolysis of agricultural wastes. Peat moss and peat
have highly developed surface and speciﬁ c pores owing
to extremely high internal surface of dead water-bearing
cells and pore volumes (300–1500 m
) in leaf plates
and pedicels of peat moss. This parameter is determined
by the amount and size of pores limiting the intrusion
of solutions and substances into water-bearing moss
vacuoles [6, 7].
The pores of peat mosses make the largest
contribution to the working area of their total surface.
Micropores with a size of the order of 20 Å make up
to 40% of the total pore volume. Mesopores (diameter
20–500 Å) account for approximately 54% of the total
surface area of pores. The fraction of macropores with
the diameter exceeding 500 Å is only ~4%, but they
ensure delivery of solutions to meso- and micropores.
As for the renewable vegetable raw materials, their
role is obvious. They can be widely used both straightly
and in the form of carbon modiﬁ cations [1–13]. Along
with anode matrices for LIBs, carbon modiﬁ cations pre-
pared from renewable raw materials, agricultural wastes,
can be used as a base for preparing refractory compounds
[10, 11], and peat moss and peat in the dry form can be
used for preparing petroleum sorbents [6, 7].
The goal of this study was the development of
a power-saving technology for preparing carbon-based
nanocomposite systems from renewable vegetable raw
materials and nanosized chemical elements.
The carbon modiﬁ cations (host matrices) and