Remote Identification of Liquids in a Dielectric Container
Using Millimeter Waves. 2. Linear Scanning
A. V. Pavlyuchenko
, P. P. Loshitskiy
, A. I. Shelengovskiy
, and V. V. Babenko
State Research Center “Iceberg”, Kyiv, Ukraine
National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, Kyiv, Ukraine
Received in final form March 6, 2018
Abstract—The results of experimental studies showing the applicability of short-range radar in the
millimeter wavelength range for remote identification of explosive liquids in closed dielectric containers
are presented. This study presents radiometric study of hazardous liquids based on an example of
gasolines and diesel fuels. It has been shown experimentally that radiometric studies allow remote studies
and object identification at distances of up to several meters. The variety of physical and chemical
properties of liquid fuels does not allow their identification using the measurement results of only the
permittivity and loss tangent from one measurement in one frequency range. The use of a thermal portrait
of liquid fuels in closed dielectric containers for their identification is more illustrative and informative.
The dependence of the spatial temperature portrait of the container with liquid on the polarization of the
received signal is experimentally shown. The use of different polarizations of the received signal and the
difference in the spatial temperature portraits of the liquid in the container provide additional information
in order to increase the probability of correct identification of the liquid. Thermal portraits obtained with
linear scanning for gasolines of different manufacturers differ more strongly, in comparison with thermal
portraits of diesel fuels. Due to the modification of the measuring system, the total time for scanning and
obtaining the output experimental data is 42 s. The standard deviation of the obtained experimental data
did not exceed 3.6%.
It was shown in  that the specific features of the short-range radar make it possible to tackle problems
fundamentally unsolvable by means of long-range radar and infrared techniques, namely the remote
measurement of the temperature distribution of objects and investigation of their internal structure,
including liquids in closed dielectric containers (tare). The principle possibility of remote detection of
explosive and flammable liquids in a dielectric container and their difference from non-hazardous liquids,
for example, mineral water is also shown.
Detailed studies of hazardous liquids based on the example of flammable liquids - gasolines and diesel
fuels have been carried out in this study. The results of studies of other highly flammable liquids (for
example, alcohols, solvents) is not part of this work.
Determination of the fuel composition, its compliance with National standards or specifications is a
labor-intensive and technically complex task. In the present work, the possibility of using a remote
short-range radar method not only to identify fuels, but also to determine the differences of same type fuels
of several manufacturers, is considered.
The choice of gasoline and diesel fuels (DFs) as research objects is due to their great variety, as well as
the need to experimentally test the short-range radar technique in the millimeter wavelength range with the
aim of using it for remote detection of not only the liquid in the closed dielectric containers, but also to
specific types of fuel.
ISSN 0735-2727, Radioelectronics and Communications Systems, 2018, Vol. 61, No. 4, pp. 157–167. © Allerton Press, Inc., 2018.
Original Russian Text © A.V. Pavlyuchenko, P.P. Loshitskiy, A.I. Shelengovskiy, V.V. Babenko, 2018, published in Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii,
Radioelektronika, 2018, Vol. 61, No. 4, pp. 213–225.
This study is supported by the NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme. Project G5005.