Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 5, pp. 755−767.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text
I.A. Kurzina, 2010, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 5, pp. 705−717.
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Relationships in Formation
of Silicon Nitride-Supported Metal Nanoparticles
I. A. Kurzina
Tomsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Tomsk, Russia
Received October 20, 2009
Abstract—The state of the particles of silicon nitride-supported metal (platinum, palladium, silver) depending
on the support preparation conditions and the active component loading technique was examined in relation to
the structural features and phase composition of the support. The common and different features in formation of
the metal nanoparticles on the silicon nitride surface were identiﬁ ed.
An essential prerequisite for transition to advanced
technologies consists in development of novel materials
whose functional characteristics are determined by the
properties of the specially created microareas, as well as
by the processes occurring at the atomic and molecular
levels in monolayers and nanobulks. One of the major
challenges faced by nanotechnology researchers is
stabilization of nonequilibrium nanoparticles without
major loss of their high reactivity. In this context,
a topical task consists in directed synthesis of stable
and active metallic nanoobjects whose high functional
activity is preserved in catalytic processes, especially
at high temperatures. This challenge is typically
solved via the use of various stabilizing matrix
supports. However, this route is associated with certain
complications, e.g., agglomeration of the particles and
entrainment of the active phase, which hinder further
use of these materials as catalytically active systems.
Moreover, under expo-sure of the nanosystems to
increased temperatures and/or redox reactant mixtures,
weak interaction of nanoparticles with the support
surface may lead to the loss of the functional properties
by the nanoheterogeneous system. At the same time,
the physicochemical and functional properties of the
nanoparticles involved in the chemical reaction may
be affected not only by the particle size but also by
the nature of the matrix support and reaction medium.
In this context, there is an urgent need to develop
approaches to preserving high reactivity of the
nanoparticles stabilized by support matrices so as to
make them suitable as active components of catalytic
systems in speciﬁ c processes.
For metal (in particular Pd, Pt, and Ag) particles,
exhibiting catalytic activity in high-temperature processes
(deep oxidation of hydrocarbons, hydrogenation of
carbon monoxide, partial oxidation of alcohols, etc.),
suitable supports are conventionally found in oxide
systems: silica, alumina, aluminosilicates . However,
such systems often lose their activity via agglomeration
and entrainment of the active phase. Prolonged activity
of nanoparticles under high-temperature redox reaction
conditions can be achieved with an alternative support,
silicon nitride. It possesses high thermal conductivity, as
well as high strength and corrosion resistance and low
oxidation rate, which properties are of prime importance
for high-temperature exothermic catalytic processes
(deep oxidation of methane, partial oxidation of ethylene
glycol to glyoxal) .
All the basic principles of preparation of supported
metal systems, described in literature, concern oxide
supports. Interaction of platinum/palladium/silver
complexes with the oxide (Al