Relation s of Masculinity an d Fem ininity with
Person ality Dim ension s of the Five-Factor
an d Den is Bratko
University of Zagreb
Th e aim of this stu dy was to exam in e the relation s of m ascu lin ity an d
fem in inity with five-factor personality dim ension s in Croatian adolescen ts.
Sam ple consisted of 464 high school graduates‚ all of them Caucasian‚ and
approxim ately 90% Croatian . Results were an alyzed by m ultiple regression
procedu re using m asculinity‚ femin inity‚ gender‚ and their in teractions as
indepen den t variables. All three main effects were fou nd to be statistically
significant ‚ with no significan t interactions. Masculinity contribu tes positively
to extraversion and conscien tiousn ess‚ an d negatively to neuroticism and
agreeableness‚ wh ile fem inin ity shows stro n g positive rela tion ship with
agreeableness‚ and weak positive relation ships with the other four dim ensions.
Results are discussed in terms of four proposed models of the relation between
gen der role orientation and psychological health.
Ove r the past two de cades‚ androgyny rese arch has mainly been focuse d
on the re lationship between the gender role orie ntation and a numbe r of
variable s tapping psychological he alth and well-be ing. The research has
been primarily guide d by one of the core propositions of androgyny the-
ory—name ly‚ that androgynous individuals ‚ be ing in possession of high lev-
e ls of both masculin e and fe min in e pe rsonali ty traits‚ show be tte r
adjustme nt and greate r behavioral fle xibility than the ir gender-typed peers
(e.g.‚ Bem‚ 1974‚ 1984; Cook‚ 1985; Spence‚ He lmre ich‚ & Stapp‚ 1975) .
The extensive research‚ howe ve r‚ faile d to produce straightforward re -
sults. The initial validation studie s yielde d re sults supporting the above -
mentione d proposition: the y indicate d gre ate r behavioral fle xibility in an-
1998 Pl e num Publishing Corporation
To whom correspon de nce shou ld be addre ssed at De partme nt of Psychology
10000 Zagre b