Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 7, pp. 945−951.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original Russian Text © N.A. Rudenskaya, G.P. Shveikin, V.A. Guletskii, M.V. Rudenskaya, 2013, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2013, Vol. 86,
No. 7, pp. 1009−1015.
AND INDUSTRIAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Reinforcement of Metal–Ceramic Coatings
in the Course of Their Partial Fusion
N. A. Rudenskaya
, G. P. Shveikin
, V. A. Guletskii
, and M. V. Rudenskaya
Politekhnik Research and Engineering Park, Belarussian National Technical University, Minsk, Belarus
Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg, Russia
St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received June 25, 2013
Abstract—Factors and mechanisms responsible for the appearance of layered structures of variable cross section
in protective coatings based on self-ﬂ uxing alloys were studied. A number of structural fragments of composite
coatings based on safe-ﬂ uxing PG-10K-01 and PG-SR3 alloys (initial formulations and those reinforced with oxide
ceramic particles), formed by sputtering in a plasma ﬂ ux and then partially fused in a furnace, by a gas–oxygen
ﬂ ame, and with laser and electron beams, were revealed and studied. The relationships of the element distribution
across the coating layer as a whole and in separate phases were determined. The effect exerted on the chemical
composition and microhardness of coatings by the size, structure, and arrangement of inclusions in the coating
cross section was demonstrated.
The composition and structure of protective coatings
based on self-ﬂ uxing alloys, determining the properties
of these coatings, depend not only on the sputtering
process parameters and on the characteristics of the
powders being sputtered, but also on the processes of
modiﬁ cation of these materials in the course of their
transformation from the state of separate particles to the
state of compact layers.
Recently there has been a strong tendency to use
nanopowders with the aim to obtain high-strength thin
structures. However, this approach involves certain
problems with nanopowder production, particle
segregation, and disintegration of microconglomerates
consisting of nanoparticles. These problems lead to
worse quality of coatings and lower powder utilization
There is also another way to obtain ultrasized phase
components of coatings, based on the properties of the
initial powder consisting of microcomposites. This
approach, however, can be implemented only within
narrow limits of process parameters [1–5].
Understanding of factors and mechanisms responsible
for the formation of layered structures of variable
cross section would allow more efﬁ cient control of the
composition, structure, and properties of the coatings.
As materials for the studies we used coatings formed
by plasma sputtering and partially fused by gas–oxygen
ﬂ ame, in a furnace, and by electron and laser beams. The
coatings were prepared from the PG-10K-01 and PG-
SR3 self-ﬂ uxing alloys and from the PG-10K-01 alloy
reinforced with a ﬁ ller, ТiO
-based oxide ceramic.
We studied several kinds of structural fragments of
the coatings: (1) carbide phases formed from the melt in
the course of self-ﬂ uxing; (2) grains of Сr–Ni(Co) solid
solution; and (3) grains of oxide ceramic, mechanically
introduced into the self-ﬂ uxing alloy with the aim of
dispersion reinforcement of the coating.
Comparative analysis of coatings sputtered by
the detonation and plasma methods and treated with
plasma and with electron and laser beams showed that
the structure of the detonation coatings and of coatings