Psychopharmacology (2018) 235:641–650 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-017-4778-3 ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Reinforcement enhancement by nicotine in adult rats: behavioral selectivity and relation to mode of delivery and blood nicotine levels 1 1 Annie Constantin & Paul B. S. Clarke Received: 17 August 2017 /Accepted: 30 October 2017 /Published online: 11 November 2017 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017 Abstract nicotine generalized to several modes of drug delivery, ap- Rationale Reinforcement-enhancing effects of nicotine occur peared to track circulating levels of drug, and occurred even in human subjects and laboratory rats. However, the doses at serum levels within the daytime range of moderate cigarette used in animal studies typically exceed smoking-associated smokers. levels of exposure, and generalized behavioral activation by . . nicotine can potentially confound data interpretation. Keywords Nicotine Reinforcement enhancement Route of Methods During daily 60-min sessions, male adult rats . . . administration Pharmacokinetics Tobacco Smoking pressed an Bactive^ lever to illuminate a brief cue light. Pressing on either the active or inactive lever retracted both levers for 60 s. Nicotine (0.025–0.2 mg/kg) was given either Introduction by continuous intravenous (IV) infusion, or spaced IV pulses (3-s or 30-s/pulse), or pre-session subcutaneous (SC) In the dual-reinforcement model proposed by Caggiula,
Psychopharmacology – Springer Journals
Published: Nov 11, 2017
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