A partially purified preparation of the lobster muscle Na+/Ca2+ exchanger was reconstituted with, presumably, random orientation in liposomes. Ca2+ efflux from 45Ca-loaded vesicles was studied in exchanger molecules in which the transporter cytoplasmic surface was exposed to the extravesicular (ev) medium. Extravesicular Na+ (Na ev )-dependent Ca2+ efflux depended directly upon the extravesicular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+] ev ) with a half-maximal activation at [Ca2+] ev = 0.6 μm. This suggests that the lobster muscle exchanger is catalytically upregulated by cytoplasmic Ca2+, as in most other species. In contrast, at low [Na+] ev , the Ca ev -binding site (i.e., on the cytoplasmic surface) for Ca2+ transported via Ca2+/Ca2+ exchange was half-maximally activated by about 7.5 μm Ca2+. Mild proteolysis of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger by α-chymotrypsin also upregulated the Na ev -dependent Ca2+ efflux. Following proteolytic digestion in Ca-free medium, the exchanger was no longer regulated by nontransported ev Ca2+. Proteolytic digestion in the presence of 1.9 μm free ev Ca2+, however, induced only a 1.6-fold augmentation of Ca2+ efflux, whereas, after digestion in nominally Ca-free medium, a 2.3-fold augmentation was observed; Ca2+ also inhibited proteolytic degradation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger measured by immunoblotting. These data suggest that Ca2+, bound to a high affinity binding site, protects against the activation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger by α-chymotrypsin. Additionally, we observed a 6-fold increase in the Na+/Ca2+ exchange rate, on average, when the intra- and extravesicular salt concentrations were increased from 160 to 450 mm, suggesting that the lobster muscle exchanger is optimized for transport at the high salt concentration present in lobster body fluids.
The Journal of Membrane Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Apr 1, 2000
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