REFINING STEEL IN A LADLE BY INERT GAS AND ACOUSTIC BLOW
V. G. Lisienko,
A. S. Degai,
I. D. Kashcheev,
M. V. Zuev,
A. L. Zasukhin,
V. D. Osetrov,
V. N. Kozlov,
A. M. Gorokhovskii,
V. A. Zelenin,
E. M. Grishpun,
and G. V. Pol’shikov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 8, pp. 12 – 17, August, 2007.
Original article submitted April 26, 2007.
Methods are proposed for intensifying mass transfer in blow of steel in a ladle using acoustic vibrations. In
dustrial tests of blowing metal in a ladle using a lance and imposition of acoustic vibrations generated by an
external acoustic radiator are described. An acoustic blow plug (ABP) containing a resonator of jet-acoustic
vibrations is proposed for argon blow of steel in the ladle. Model studies and theoretical estimates of factors
that contribute to intensification of mixing and decrease in the blow plug erosion are described. The results of
industrial testing of blowing steel in a furnace-ladle plant using the ABP at the Severskii Pipe Works are
The blow of metal in a ladle using inert gases signifi-
cantly improves the quality of steel. Yet the methods for in-
tensifying these processes are constantly being upgraded and
the mechanisms of mass transfer processes cannot be re-
garded as fully investigated.
In order to intensify the mass transfer processes in blow-
ing steel in a ladle, specialists from the Ural State Technical
University and the Severskii Pipe Works have proposed a
method for acoustic refining of metal. The acoustic treatment
can be implemented in blowing either via a gas nozzle, or via
a porous plug [1 – 6] inserted in the ladle bottom.
In 2004 the Ural Technical University, the Severskii Pipe
Works, and the Dinur JSC designed an acoustic blow plug
(ABP) with a resonator positioned inside the plug and deve
loped the corresponding production technology, after which
the prototype plugs were tested in the furnace-ladle plants at
the Severskii Pipe Works (SPW) [7, 8]. Since then we have
been carrying out comparative experimental-industrial test
ing of the ABP, as well as model test on cold testbenches and
theoretical studies to evaluate the mechanism of the pro
cesses occurring in acoustic blowing.
Before the ABP was designed, nitrogen blow lances had
been tested at the Severskii Pipe Works with superimposed
acoustic vibrations generated by an external acoustic radiator
(Fig. 1) [1, 4]. The industrial testing of this blow lance exhi
bited an improved chemical composition and mechanical
properties in steel 20A (based on the data of 200 heats), its
strength growing by 10.2%, yield point by 21.4%, hardness
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 48, No. 3, 2007
1083-4877/07/4803-0230 © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Ural State Technical University (UPI), Severskii Pipe Works,
Dinur JSC, Russia.
Change of the scale
Fig. 1. A device for blowing metal in a ladle with induced acoustic
fields: 1, acoustic radiator body; 2, cylindrical lateral ring; 3, nozzle
connection; 4, nozzle, resonator system; 5, exit cylinder; 6, resona
tor nut; 7, blow lance; 8, teeming ladle.