REFRACTORIES IN HEATING UNITS
REDESIGN OF REFRACTORIES FOR THE POURING CHAMBER
OF THE TUNDISH OF A CONTINUOUS SECTION CASTER
K. N. Vdovin,
V. V. Tochilkin,
and O. A. Filatova
Translated from Novye Ogneupory,No.9,pp.3–7,September, 2015.
Original article submitted April 10, 2015.
New equipment that has been installed in the pouring chambers of continuous-caster tundishes is discussed.
The equipment upgrade ensures efficient formation of the flows of metal in the tundish and creates the condi
tions necessary to improve its quality.
Key words: continuous caster, tundish, metal flows, mathematical modeling.
The increasingly stringent requirements on the quality of
the steel produced on continuous section casters is making it
necessary to come up with special designs for the refractory
products that are used in tundishes. The emphasis here is on
products whose design provides for good organization of the
flows of liquid metal on the tundish-mold section of the
caster. The character of flow of the metal in the tundish dur-
ing continuous casting is the main factor that affects the dis-
tribution of nonmetallic inclusions in the semifinished prod
uct . Special devices that separate nonmetallic inclusions
from metal by organizing metal flows in the necessary direc
tion are being installed in the pouring chamber of the tundish
to restrict direct flow into the discharge opening .
The main element which ensures that the flow of steel
from the tundish is properly proportioned is the metering
nozzle and the associated equipment [2, 3] installed in the
tundish’s bottom. The metering nozzle must meet the follow
ing requirements: provide for a uniform feed of metal into
the mold during the entire casting operation; form a compact
stream without spraying of the metal; prevent the formation
of “fan”-type casting defects. When steel is cast in an open
stream, an attempt is made to keep the flow rate uniform by
keeping the ferrostatic pressure of the metal in the tundish
constant [4, 5]. This can be done provided that the inside di
ameter of the metering nozzle does not change. The scheme
just discussed applies mainly to the casting of steel on con
tinuous section casters.
One distinctive feature of the casting of steel in an open
stream through a metering nozzle is the small cross section
of the nozzle’s internal cavity. The cross section is usually
10 – 18 mm and depends on the casting speed and the cross
section of the semifinished product. The casting operation
can remain stable for its duration only if the cross section of
the metering nozzle stays constant. The internal insert of
such a nozzle is made of expensive zirconium dioxide, which
makes it important to properly select the design of the equip
ment and the material of a tundish metering nozzle when
long series of heats are being cast into steel sections .
The present investigation examines several variants of
the design of sets of metering nozzles and the accompanying
equipment that is installed in the tundish’s pouring chamber
. The emphasis is on the dependence of the quality of the
steel that enters the mold on the design of the nozzle set and
auxiliary tundish equipment. Figure 1 shows a tundish
equipped with a set of metering nozzles and the associated
pieces of equipment [3, 5]. The installation of the nozzles in
the discharge opening of the tundish is illustrated in Fig. 2.
The tundish consists of a body 1 and a lining 2. The bottom 3
of body 1 contains discharge openings 4, each of which has a
slide gate 5, upper 6 and lower 7 metering nozzles, and a
well block 8 with a hole 9. Each nozzle 6 and 7 is in the form
of a load-bearing block 10 and an insert 11 with a conical
cavity. A guide element 14 is attached to the end of each
block 10 of the respective upper nozzle 6, which is directed
into the cavity 13 of the tundish body 1. The guide element
has an internal cavity 15 that is mated with the conical cavity
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 56, No. 5, January, 2016
1083-4877/16/05605-0439 © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Magnitogorsk State Technical University, Magnitogorsk, Russia.