Polyamine-induced inward rectification of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels was studied in inside-out patches from rat olfactory neurons. The polyamines, spermine, spermidine and putrescine, induced an `instantaneous' voltage-dependent inhibition with K d values at 0 mV of 39, 121 μm and 2.7 mm, respectively. Hill coefficients for inhibition were significantly < 1, suggesting an allosteric inhibitory mechanism. The Woodhull model for voltage-dependent block predicted that all 3 polyamines bound to a site 1/3 of the electrical distance through the membrane from the internal side. Instantaneous inhibition was relieved at positive potentials, implying significant polyamine permeation. Spermine also induced exponential current relaxations to a `steady-state' impermeant level. This inhibition was also mediated by a binding site 1/3 of the electrical distance through the pore, but with a K d of 2.6 mm. Spermine inhibition was explained by postulating two spermine binding sites at a similar depth. Occupation of the first site occurs rapidly and with high affinity, but once a spermine molecule has bound, it inhibits spermine occupation of the second binding site via electrostatic repulsion. This repulsion is overcome at higher membrane potentials, but results in a lower apparent binding affinity for the second spermine molecule. The on-rate constant for the second spermine binding saturated at a low rate (∼200 sec−1 at +120 mV), providing further evidence for an allosteric mechanism. Polyamine-induced inward rectification was significant at physiological concentrations.
The Journal of Membrane Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Aug 1, 1999
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