1063-0740/02/2804- $27.00 © 2002
Russian Journal of Marine Biology, Vol. 28, No. 4, 2002, pp. 274–277.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2002 by Biologiya Morya, Khristoforova, Zhuravel, Mironova.
Among the second-order bays located within Peter
the Great Bay, Vostok Bay is prone to only insigniﬁcant
technogenic pressure. Therefore, it has long been used
as a control area to evaluate the level of pollution in
such bays as Amur, Ussuriisk, and Nakhodka, which
are prone to strong anthropogenic effects. Economical
difﬁculties and, therefore, the impossibility for many
inhabitants of the Russian Far East to spend their
vacancies on the Black or Baltic seas, resulted in that
the clean sandy beaches of Vostok Bay, especially the
beaches around the town of Livadiya, have become a
favorite recreation area during the last decade not only
for local inhabitants of Primorye, but also for people
from other districts and provinces of the Russian Far
East. The main tourist season begins in July, continuing
through the peak in August and ending in September.
Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the recreation pres-
sure in the bay and to monitor the dynamics of the
anthropogenic load, as well as to estimate the self-res-
toration capabilities of the bay’s ecosystem. These
tasks were the main goals of our project.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
To estimate the chemical and ecological situations
related to recreation pressure, we have chosen indices
that reﬂect, directly or indirectly, the common effect of
man in the marine environment. These include the con-
centration of detergents, reﬂecting the intensity of the
usage of cleaners; the value of BOD
, indicating the
presence of metabolite organics both excreted by water
organisms and entering the sea with land runoff; and
the concentration of dissolved oxygen, which is an inte-
gral index showing the favorable or unfavorable condi-
tion of water ecosystems. The oxygen is produced by
photosynthetic organisms and enters the water by diffu-
sion from the atmosphere and by atmospheric precipi-
tation; it is used for different processes, from respira-
tion to oxidation of various organic matter.
The index of enterobacteria density of was used as
the biological index of recreation pressure in the bay;
this is the most demonstrative index revealing the pres-
ence of the man.
To monitor the concentration of detergents, we used
their major component, anionic synthetic surfactants
(AS). The AS were determined with a photocolorimeter
using a methylene blue stain . The method is accu-
rate to 20 mkg of AS/liter; the relative calculation error is
3.5%. The accuracy of the analysis of samples for AS
was checked using a standard sample of sodium dodecyl-
sulphate according to State Standard (GSO) 8049-94.
The concentration of dissolved oxygen and BOD
was determined using Winkler’s method  to an accu-
racy of 0.05 mg O
/liter. Chemical analyses were per-
formed on the day of sampling.
The samples for microbiological analysis were col-
lected with disposable syringes and then transported to
the Laboratory of Microbiology of the Far Eastern State
University for treatment. The inoculation of the entero-
bacteria was performed onto Endo medium. The colo-
nies were counted using a technique commonly
accepted for solid media .
Water samples were collected in canisters by scuba
divers, at a distance of 3–5 m from the ship (RV “Pro-
fessor Nasonov”) or the boat. At small depths (to 5 m
depth), the samples were collected from the surface
water layer; in deeper water, they were collected from
both the surface and bottom layers.
Recreational Effects in Vostok Bay, Sea of Japan
N. K. Khristoforova
, E. V. Zhuravel’
, and Yu. A. Mironova
Far Eastern State University, Vladivostok, 690600 Russia
Paciﬁc Institute of Geography, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690041 Russia
Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690041 Russia
Received January 01, 2002
—The paper presents the results of three hydrochemical surveys performed in October 2000 and May
and July 2001 and microbiological monitoring performed in June, July, and August 2001 in Vostok Bay (Sea of
Japan), which is a favorite recreation area for the inhabitants of Primorye and the Russian Far East. It is shown
that at the height of recreation occurs during late summer, as determined by the concentration of water-dis-
solved oxygen, the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD
), the concentration of detergents, and the number of
colony-forming enterobacteria in 1 ml of water. However, in autumn, especially by October, the anthropogenic
pressure decreases and the quality of the water environment in the bay improves.
recreational effects, marine environment, dissolved oxygen, BOD
, detergents, enterobacteria.