ISSN 0020-1685, Inorganic Materials, 2017, Vol. 53, No. 9, pp. 916–922. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2017.
Original Russian Text © I.M. Belyaev, P.V. Istomin, E.I. Istomina, 2017, published in Neorganicheskie Materialy, 2017, Vol. 53, No. 9, pp. 934–942.
Reaction of Metallic Titanium with SiO Gas
I. M. Belyaev*, P. V. Istomin, and E. I. Istomina
Institute of Chemistry, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pervomaiskaya ul. 48, Syktyvkar, 167982 Komi Republic, Russia
Received June 20, 2016; in final form, March 02, 2017
Abstract⎯We have studied the silicidation of thin VT 1-00 titanium strips in a gaseous SiO atmosphere at
1350°C. The results demonstrate that silicidation produces a porous layer of Ti
particles on the surface
of the titanium strips. This is accompanied by the incorporation of oxygen atoms into the crystal lattice
of α-titanium, resulting in the formation of an α-Ti〈O
〉 (0.1 ≤ y ≤ 0.5) solid solution. The thickness of the
layer and the oxygen concentration in the α-titanium lattice depend on the silicidation rate and time.
Keywords: SiO, silicidation, titanium, titanium silicides
Silicon monoxide, SiO, is widely used in sputter-
deposition technologies as a source material, because
it readily vaporizes at temperatures above 1200°C and
condenses on cooled substrates to form films with
good adhesion strength and high chemical stability. In
particular, thin metal-doped SiO films are used in the
fabrication of high-brightness light-emitting diodes
and other optical devices [1, 2].
A promising approach to producing protective
coatings for a variety of applications is the silicidation
of materials with the participation of SiO gas. As
reported previously [3, 4], high-temperature heat
treatment of TiC powders in a gaseous SiO atmo-
sphere leads to the formation of a Ti
layer on the
titanium carbide surface. There are other technologi-
cally important chemical processes with the participa-
tion of SiO gas, for example, SiC synthesis from car-
bon materials , the fabrication of micro- and nano-
structured silicon-based materials , silicothermic
reduction of TiO
with silicon carbide , and carbo-
thermic reduction of leucoxene concentrate .
One characteristic feature of these processes is
that, at temperatures from 1100 to 1200°C, SiO gas
desublimes. Because of this, high-temperature labora-
tory studies with the participation of SiO require that
furnace parts with a temperature below 1200°C be pro-
tected from undesirable SiO condensation. In connec-
tion with this, it is necessary to take additional mea-
sures to capture the SiO gas leaving the reaction zone.
In particular, to capture SiO Istomina et al.  used
activated carbon, which led to the formation of CO
according to the reaction scheme
SiO(g) + 2C(s) = SiC(s) + CO(g). (1)
Such chemical binding is accompanied by a CO
enrichment in the gas phase, increasing the load on
the vacuum system. Because of this, it is reasonable to
chemically bind SiO with absorbers, without forma-
tion of gaseous by-products. To this end, metal pow-
ders, metallic alloys, or porous bodies based on them
can be used as SiO gas absorbers. For example, under
vacuum conditions use is often made of titanium-
based absorbers [10, 11]. It is reasonable to expect that
the chemical binding of SiO gas with metallic titanium
will be accompanied by titanium silicidation, resulting
in the formation of titanium silicides. However, this
process has not been studied previously, which com-
plicates practical application of metallic titanium as a
SiO gas absorber.
In this paper, we report an experimental study of
the high-temperature reaction of metallic titanium
with SiO gas and the associated chemical transforma-
tions and microstructural changes.
We silicided titanium strips 2–3 mm in width and
80–100 μm in thickness, produced by forge-rolling
VT 1-00 titanium wire. The reactive SiO gas source
used was an equimolar mixture of Si (reagent grade)
(pure grade, Reakhim, Russian Federation
State Standard GOST 9428-73) powders. The mixture
was pressed into pellets, with the addition of a 2%
aqueous polyvinyl alcohol solution as a temporary
binder. The pellets were dried at a temperature of
130°C in air for 10 h.
The titanium samples were silicided under a gas-
eous SiO atmosphere in a three-compartment reactor
assembled from SU-2000 glassy carbon crucibles (Fig. 1).