RATIONAL ROUTES TOWARDS IMPROVING THE WEAR RESISTANCE
OF THE MAGNESIAN LINING IN CONVERTERS
A. A. Babenko
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 1, pp. 26 – 28, January, 2005.
Original article submitted November 22, 2004.
A survey of experimental data on the corrosive attack of slag on the conveyer’s lining is give. The highest rate
of lining degradation takes place during the period of slag buildup. To minimize slag attack on the basic lining,
a slag with high basicity and MgO concentration close to saturation is to be generated in the early blowing pe
riod. To enhance the scull durability, a slag with a high percentage of high-temperature phases is recom
mended for use.
The thermal and operating efficiency of the converter
and the quality and cost of the converter steel are to a signifi-
cant extent controlled by the performance characteristics, in
particular, durability, of the converter’s lining. Corrosive at-
tack by the slag is a major factor to be taken into account
when a lining is designed for durability. It has been reported
in  that about 70% of the total of refractory materials in
service suffer degradation because of slag attack.
In , a quantitative estimate of the attack of molten iron
rich in phosphorus on the resin-impregnated periclase lining
of a converter has been made. Within the first 70% of the pe
riod of service, the wear rate of the converter lining was 1.2
times the wear rate during the late period of metal refining.
A balance model analysis of the early and late periods of the
converter process [2, 3] has shown that degradation of the
lining was the most intense within the period of slag forma
tion. Within the first 20% of the blowing time, some 1280 kg
of refractory mass passed into slag; the wear rate of lining
was 290 kg/min (Table 1).
The high wear rate in the early blowing period is mainly
associated with the low basicity and high oxidation potential
of the primary slag. It has been reported in  that decreas
ing the slag basicity from 2.0 to 0.8 causes an increase in the
saturation of slag with MgO from 5 to 11%; the lower the
slag basicity, the higher the rate at which magnesium oxide
passed from the resin-bonded periclase refractory into slag.
The early formation of a slag with higher basicity and low
degree of oxidation provides more favorable conditions for
the service of converter lining (Table 2).
The late blowing period (extending over 21 – 70%) usu-
ally involves a well-formed slag with a high basicity and a
relatively low degree of oxidation (see Table 1). Over this
period, the rate of transition of refractory mass into slag is
about 93 kg/min, and the amount of refractory mass passed
into slag reaches 920 kg. In the final period of refining (at
both high bath temperature and degree of slag oxidation), the
slag impact is somewhat reduced because of the slag’s high
basicity (see Table 1). The wear rate of the lining tends to de
crease in comparison with that during the refining period by
a factor of 1.2 to reach 130 kg/min.
A route towards reducing the corrosive slag attack on the
magnesian converter’s lining is formation of basic MgO-sa
turated slags . Conditions for the saturation of phospho
rus-containing slags with magnesium oxide during the early
blowing period were established experimentally. The tests
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 46, No. 3, 2005
1083-4877/05/4603-0162 © 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Based on materials reported to the 8th Congress of Steelmakers
(18 – 22 October, 2004, Nizhny Tagil, Russia).
Ural Institute for Metals State Science Center of the Russian Fed
eration, Ekaterinburg, Russia.
TABLE 1. Rate of Wear of the Converter Lining Measured Over
tration in slag,
into slag, kg
0 – 20 14.6 1.50 290 1280
21 – 70 9.7 1.96 93 920
71 – 100 20.1 3.80 130 970