ISSN 1022-7954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2006, Vol. 42, No. 7, pp. 723–727. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2006.
Original Russian Text © E.Z. Kochieva, N.N. Ryzhova, M.P. Legkobit, N.V. Khadeeva, 2006, published in Genetika, 2006, Vol. 42, No. 7, pp. 887–892.
is one of the most abundant gen-
era of the family Lamiaceae. Many species of the genus
are important for pharmacology and food industry [1, 2].
For instance, several
species are used in medi-
cine for treatment of cardiological diseases and as ofﬁ-
cinal anti-inﬂammatory drugs, analgesics, and anticon-
vulsants in several countries .
long been cultured as an annual crop in China and
species have other valuable features
in addition to their pharmacological effect. Almost all
species of the genus belong to nectar production group
1. Fatty oils from seeds of various
suitable for varnish production;
be used to obtain paints and as a natural insecticide.
Species of the section Lanatae, in particular,
, are widely used in ﬂoriculture .
Despite of its commercial value, the genus
has been poorly studied genetically among all genera of
the family Lamiaceae. The taxonomy of the genus is
rather unclear. The size and composition of its sections
varies among different works [4–9]. For instance, there
is no consensus as to the status of the genus
some authors combine
genus, while some others do not [4, 9, 10]. Many spe-
cies have several synonymous names (e.g.,
(Miq.)); in other cases, one name is ascribed to different
Genome polymorphism of populations and species of
has not been studied so far. Studies of the tax-
onomic position and phylogenetic relationships of
species were restricted to morphological and
cytological analyses until recently and utilized some
chemotaxonomic data; these analyses are hardly sufﬁ-
cient for such a complex genus.
DNA technology has recently come to be widely
used for estimating the interspeciﬁc and intraspeciﬁc
genome polymorphism and establishing the phyloge-
netic and evolutionary relationships among species. In
particular, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with
arbitrary primers is used to analyze the ampliﬁcation
fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), random ampli-
ﬁed polymorphic DNA (RADP), and inter-simple
sequence repeats (ISSR). PCR-based methods with
arbitrary primers (AFLP and RAPD) are used to char-
acterize mostly neutral, unique, and moderately repeti-
tive sequences of the genome. ISSR analysis is aimed
at studying the polymorphism of highly repetitive
genome regions .
genome has not been examined with
modern molecular genetic markers so far. Hence, it was
of interest to examine DNAs of the
most widespread in Russia with molecular methods and
to estimate the genome polymorphism at the intrageneric
and intraspeciﬁc levels. In addition, we used molecular
markers to infer the taxonomic and phylogenetic rela-
tionships among the species under study and tried to clar-
ify the taxonomic status of individual species.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
We used 14
S. sylvatica, S. lanata,
S. ofﬁcinalis, S. sieboldii, S. byzantina, S. germanica,
S. palustris, S. ocymastrum, S. recta, S. arvensis, S. alope-
curos, S. discolor, S. annua
), which were
obtained on request from Russian and other collections.
RAPD and ISSR Analyses of Species and Populations
of the Genus
E. Z. Kochieva
, N. N. Ryzhova
, M. P. Legkobit
, and N. V. Khadeeva
Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia; e-mail: email@example.com
Bioengineering Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received December 26, 2005
—Molecular analysis of the genome was performed for 14 species of the genus
ISSR analyses of the
genome revealed 574 polymorphic fragments, including genus- and species-spe-
ciﬁc markers. Based on the patterns, UPGMA and the Jacquard coefﬁcient were used to estimate the genetic
species and populations and to construct dendrograms reﬂecting the phylogenetic
relationships among the
species. Molecular analysis of the
genome reﬁned the phylogenetic
positions of some species and revealed synonymous species.