1022-7954/01/3708- $25.00 © 2001
Russian Journal of Genetics, Vol. 37, No. 8, 2001, pp. 905–910. Translated from Genetika, Vol. 37, No. 8, 2001, pp. 1088–1094.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2001 by Kochieva, Goryunova, Pomortsev.
belongs to the tribe Triticae and
includes approximately 50 species . Their classiﬁca-
tion was initially based on morphological traits. More
recently, cytogenetic traits and the ability of species to
produce fertile progeny in crosses have come to be con-
sidered in systematics of the genus
of meiotic chromosome behavior in interspeciﬁc barley
hybrids have revealed four major types of the barley
genome (I, Y, X, and H) [2, 3].
However, the status of several taxa within the genus
is still unclear. For instance, some researchers consider
All. as a separate species by some
researchers but other authors assign it to
Huds. sensu lato. Likewise, taxonomic relationships
are not com-
pletely established .
At present, analysis of protein and DNA polymor-
phisms are used to improve systematics of the genus
Random ampliﬁcation of polymorphic DNA
(RAPD) is among the most common methods to detect
interspeciﬁc and intraspeciﬁc polymorphism of the
genome and to study the phylogenetic relationships of
species, including species of the family Poaceae [5–7].
In this work, we employed RAPD markers in study-
ing the genomes of six species, three populations, and
seven regional cultivars of barley.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
We analyzed plants of six species (the nomenclature
of the genus
is given according to Bothmer
and Jacobsen ):
(Schrib. et Smith) Rydb.,
(C. Koch) Thellung (populations 1 and 3
were from Turkey and population 2 was from Azer-
The latter included
regional cultivars 1 (winter) from Azerbaijan, 2 (spring)
from Azerbaijan, 3 (mixed) from Azerbaijan, 4 from
Turkey (collected near the Van Lake), 5 from Turkey
(collected near the town of Artvin), 6 from Turkey (col-
lected near the town of Burdur), and 7 from Turkey
(collected near the town of Bursa).
Genomic DNA was isolated from at least 15 plants
of each group.
Isolation of plant DNA followed the standard proto-
col . DNA concentration was measured in a Beck-
man 7500 spectrophotometer (United States).
RAPD analysis was carried out using reagent kits
from Dialat (Moscow). DNA was ampliﬁed in 25
the reaction mixture containing 1
buffer from a corre-
sponding kit, 2.5 mM MgCl
M of each dNTP,
0.5 pM of a primer, 0.25 units of
and 50 ng of genomic DNA.
In RAPD analysis, we used 19 random primers,
including commercial 10-nt primers OPD05, OPN11,
OPD06, OPN13, OPD12, OPN14, OPD16, OPN15,
OPA08, OPN18, OPA09, OPN08, OPN10, OPN03,
OPA 30 (Operon Technologies, United States), A30,
A31, BL26 , and a primer homologous to microsat-
ellite sequence (ACGT)
Earlier, all these primers have been successfully
used to analyze other species of the family Poaceae
(Gramineae) and, in particular, species of the genus
RAPD Analysis of the Genome
in Species of the Genus
E. Z. Kochieva, S. V. Goryunova, and A. A. Pomortsev
Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia; e-mail: email@example.com
Received April 3, 2001
—Random ampliﬁcation of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyze six species, three popu-
lations, and seven regional cultivars of barley. A unique pattern of ampliﬁed DNA products was obtained for
each species of the genus
High polymorphism of barley species was revealed. Speciﬁc fragments
were found in most RAPD patterns; the fragments can be used as molecular markers of corresponding species
and subspecies. Several other DNA fragments were shown to serve as molecular markers of the H genome. Spe-
ciﬁc RAPD patterns were obtained for each population and each cultivar of
sensu lato. In total, vari-
ation between the populations and between the cultivars was substantially lower than between species. Cluster
analysis (UPGMA) was used to estimate genetic distances between the
species, between the
populations, and between regional
cultivars and a dendrogram was constructed.