RAISING THE EFFICIENCY OF UTILIZATION
OF SECONDARY REFRACTORIES
L. B. Khoroshavin,
I. I. Ovchinnikov,
S. G. Nevolin,
and M. Kh. Yumagulov
Translated from Ogneupory i Tekhnicheskaya Keramika, No. 2, pp. 31 – 33, February, 2001.
It is shown that scrap of secondary refractories can successfully be utilized. Practical recommendations are
given on raising the efficiency of the use of powders from scrap of refractory articles.
Secondary refractories, i.e., worked-off and broken re-
fractory articles, are a valuable material (rather than waste)
for the production of wear-resistant refractories and powder
mixtures for the metallurgical, machine building, power, and
other branches of industry.
At the present time from 10 to 20% of refractory articles
after their service (scrap) are returned into the linings of
heating units and another 10 – 20% are milled for powders
that are utilized rather inefficiently. The chief part of refrac-
tory scrap (over 50%) is not picked and goes to dumps. For
example, a new dump for refractory scrap is formed at the
Serov metallurgical plant.
A provision for returning at least 40% chamotte refrac
tories and at least 20% magnesia refractories into service was
issued by the government in 1967. Today these norms are
outdated, and the amount of utilized refractory scrap can be
increased by careful picking and manual grading [1, 2]; it
seems that in future the utilization of refractories can become
By increasing the efficiency of the use of refractory scrap
we should substantially reduce the consumption of refractory
products and save raw materials, fuel, electric power, and la
bor effort. It has been shown that
– one ton of magnesia scrap saves 2.3 tons raw
magnesite and chromite, 0.25 tons coal equivalent, and
160 kJ electric power;
– one ton alumosilicate scrap saves 1.5 tons refractory
clay, 0.15 tons coal equivalent, and 140 kJ electric power;
– one ton of silica scrap saves 1.2 tons quartzites,
0.3 tons coal equivalent, and 160 kJ electric power.
Consequently, an efficient use of scrap should finally
spare a considerable amount of resources.
Secondary use of relatively good bricks in the lining of
newly erected heating units is limited by the quality require-
ments. In addition, in some kinds of heating equipment the
use of secondary refractory articles in impermissible. This
concerns steel teeming ladles, roofs and walls of electric
steel melting furnaces, converters, blast furnaces, coke ovens,
furnaces serving in nonferrous metallurgy, and some other
This requires a special approach to widening the use of
secondary refractories .
Three kinds of raw materials can be used for the purpose,
namely, magnesia, alumosilicate, and silica scrap. Other
kinds of refractory scrap have not been considered because
of the absence of appropriate specifications.
It should be noted that the acting specifications for waste
refractory articles are now outdated. There is an urgent need
for new specifications for secondary refractories that would
cover a wide range of refractory grades.
MAGNESIA REFRACTORY SCRAP
Magnesia secondary refractories stored at metallurgical
plants or specialized sites (TU 14-8-172–75) are picked man
ually with removing slag inclusions and distributing the arti
cles between containers in accordance with their grades as
presented in Table 1.
Scrap of each grade is crushed and milled separately for
fabricating powders for new articles or mixtures. The opera
tion is performed in jaw, cone, or twin-roll crushers, ball
mills, or vibration mills. Mixtures of various fractions are
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 42, Nos.1–2, 2001
1083-4877/01/0102-0080$25.00 © 2001 Plenum Publishing Corporation
Eastern Institute of Refractories, Ekaterinburg, Russia; Uralvtor
ogneupor, Ekaterinburg, Russia; Uralgazkomplekt, Ekaterinburg,