Antenna beam tilting techniques are commonly used to deploy small cells with reduced coverage compared than macrocells. This paper proposes a new statistical propagation model for small cells with electrical and mechanical antenna tilt. The proposed model combines the dual slope path loss model with the departure angle spread model for considering antenna beam tilt. The proposed departure angle spread model introduces a new parameter reflecting the azimuth spread of departure (ASD) angles in order to account for the change of transmit antenna gain by electrical and mechanical tilt. Through this approach, the antenna gain for each ray is separately computed by considering the transmit antenna beam pattern as well as the antenna beam tilt. We perform field tests to measure the receive signal power in the downlink of commercial Long-Term Evolution small cells with antenna tilt. Based on the measurement data, we find the statistically optimal ASD parameter using a grid search and calculate the antenna gain for each ray. Also, the overall transmit antenna gain is obtained by averaging antenna gains for multiple rays. To assess the accuracy of the proposed model, the estimation error is evaluated by comparing the measured receive signal power with the estimated value using a propagation model, and the performance of the proposed propagation model is compared with those of existing path loss models in terms of root mean square error deviation. Then, it is shown that the proposed model provides more accurate propagation estimation for small cells than existing models.
Wireless Personal Communications – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 2, 2017
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