J Comput Electron (2018) 17:279–287
Radiation effects on memristor-based non-volatile SRAM cells
H. M. Vijay
· V. N. Ramakrishnan
Published online: 8 November 2017
© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017
Abstract Memristors are a promising candidate for non-
volatile memory elements. In this paper, we performed a
radiation study on different memristor-based topological
Non-Volatile Static Random Access Memory (NVSRAM).
A Voltage ThrEshold Adaptive Memristor (VTEAM) model
is considered for simulation analysis related to this work.
In this paper, four different topologies, namely 3-Transistor
2-Memristor (3T2M) SRAM cell, 2-Transmission Gate 1-
Memristor (2TG1M) SRAM cell, 1-Transistor 1-Memristor
(1T1M) SRAM cell, and 4-Transistor 2-Memristor (4T2M)
SRAM cell are investigated. A double-exponential current
pulse is induced during a read operation and perturbation
is observed due to irradiation. The memory cell retains its
original state after radiation dose is removed. 4T2M SRAM
topology is more reliable because its highest threshold cur-
rent value is 100 µA, whereas 1T1M SRAM topology is less
reliable with the lowest threshold current value of 5 nA.
Keywords Memristor · Nonvolatile · Radiation · SRAM ·
Today, non-volatile memory plays a major role in computers
as well as in cell phones. Non-volatile memory is a type
H. M. Vijay
V. N. Ramakrishnan
Department of Micro and Nanoelectronics, School of
Electronics Engineering, VIT University, Vellore,
Tamil Nadu, India
of semiconductor memory that can retain the data stored
even when power is turned off. There are different types of
non-volatile memories available, namely ﬂoating gate, ﬂash,
RRAM, STT-RAM, PCM, MRAM . RRAM is a promis-
ing candidate for non-volatile memory because of its low
power consumption, easy fabrication steps, and good scala-
bility . RRAM consists of a Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM)
structure. Storage of logic “0” or “1” state is determined by
the resistance state of the insulating layer. A high resistance
state indicates logic 0, and a low resistance state indicates
logic 1. The switching mechanism in RRAM is based on the
materials used .
Extending the operation of RRAM, in 2008 a team at HP
Labs developed a thin-ﬁlm titanium dioxide-based memris-
tor. A memristor is the fourth physical element relating ﬂux
linkage (ϕ), and the charge (q) ﬂowing through it and is given
by Eq. 1 where M is memresistance of the memristor .
Memristor symbol and its model are shown in Fig. 1.
In memristors, “W” and “D–W” represent the width of the
doped region and the width of the undoped region, respec-
tively. The voltage induced in the memristor is given by Eq. 2
is the resistance of the memristor when it is ON
is the resistance of the memristor when it is OFF.
v(t ) =
When the memristor is ON it offers a low resistance path
and a high resistance path when it is OFF. Different types of
memristor implementations are available, namely titanium
dioxide-based, layered, ferroelectric, spin memristive, poly-
meric, and carbon nanotube .