We describe the capabilities of coherent high resolution radar to observe remotely the effects of an upwelling subsurface flow on the water surface. This observation is possible because the radar radiation backscatters very strongly from surface features with dimensions similar to its wavelength, in this case X-band at 0.03 m. This technique provides imaging capability with relatively high spatial resolution (∼0.3 m) and fast time sampling (∼0.006 s) over a large surface area. The processed data reveal both the line-of-sight velocity spectrum of moving water surface features, and their water surface radar backscatter cross-section. We believe that the surface features are generated by subsurface vortices oriented normal to the surface. The vortices are advected with the bulk flow of the jet. Our radar observations of the down-stream flow from a submerged waterjet that is directed parallel to the surface are consistent with those previously measured by laser velocimetry.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: May 22, 1997
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