Quantum Information Processing, Vol. 2, No. 6, December 2003 (© 2004)
Quantum Solution of Coordination Problems
Bernardo A. Huberman
and Tad Hogg
Received June 17, 2003; accepted April 2, 2004
We present a quantum solution to coordination problems that can be implemented
with existing technologies. Using the properties of entangled states, this quantum
mechanism allows participants to rapidly ﬁnd suitable correlated choices as an
alternative to conventional approaches relying on explicit communication, prior
commitment or trusted third parties. Unlike prior proposals for quantum games
our approach retains the same choices as in the classical game and instead uti-
lizes quantum entanglement as an extra resource to aid the participants in their
KEY WORDS: Coordination games; mechanism design; quantum information.
PACS: 03.67.-a; 02.50.Le; 89.65.Gh.
1. COORDINATION GAMES
The existence of multiple equilibria in economic systems can lead to coor-
dination failures and consequently to inefﬁcient outcomes. Examples that
have been extensively studied include ﬁrms deciding whether or not to
enter a competitive market and how to position their offerings, and the
coordinated resolution of social dilemmas involved in the provision of
Coordination problems have long been studied in the context of game
where the coordination game is speciﬁed by a payoff matrix
which yields several Nash equilibria. These equilibria can at times give
the same payoff to all players, in which case the problem is for them to
agree on which one to use, or different payoffs, leading to a competitive
coordination game in which players prefer different equilibria. More gen-
erally these examples of games with multiple equilibria may require players
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1570-0755/03/1200-0421/0 © 2004 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.