A review of the principles of operation of quantum computers and their elements is presented. The radical advantage of quantum algorithms for processing information over the classical ones is discussed, quantum entanglement is considered as the basic resource of quantum computations, and the most promising and interesting proposals on realization of quantum computers on the basis of trapped ions, nuclear spins, quantum dots, superconducting structures, and others are described. This review reflects the materials of the report presented at the scientific session of the Department of Nanotechnologies and Information Technologies of the Russian Academy of Sciences on February 25, 2010.
Russian Microelectronics – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 14, 2011
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