Spins of single donor atoms are attractive candidates for large scale quantum information processing in silicon. Formation of devices with a few qubits is crucial for validation of basic ideas and development of a scalable architecture. We describe our development of a single ion implantation technique for placement of single atoms into device structures. Collimated highly charged ion beams are aligned with a scanning probe microscope. Enhanced secondary electron emission due tohigh ion charge states (e.g., 31P13+, or 126Te33+)allows efficient detection of single ion impacts. Studies of electrical activation of low dose, low energy implants of 31P in silicon show a drastic effect of dopant segregation to the SiO2/Si interface,while Si3N4/Si retards 31P segregation. We discuss resolution limiting factors in ion placement, and process challenges forintegration of single atom arrays with control gates and single electron transistors.
Quantum Information Processing – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 30, 2004
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