Purpose of Review Waterborne enteric pathogens remain a global health threat. Increasingly, quantitative microbial risk assess- ment (QMRA) and infectious disease transmission modeling (IDTM) are used to assess waterborne pathogen risks and evaluate mitigation. These modeling efforts, however, have largely been conducted independently for different purposes and in different settings. In this review, we examine the settings where each modeling strategy is employed. Recent Findings QMRA research has focused on food contamination and recreational water in high-income countries (HICs) and drinking water and wastewater in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). IDTM research has focused on large outbreaks (predominately LMICs) and vaccine-preventable diseases (LMICs and HICs). Summary Human ecology determines the niches that pathogens exploit, leading researchers to focus on different risk assessment research strategies in different settings. To enhance risk modeling, QMRA and IDTM approaches should be integrated to include dynamics of pathogens in the environment and pathogen transmission through populations. . . . Keywords Quantitative microbial risk assessment Infectious disease transmission modeling Waterborne pathogen Enteric disease Human ecology Introduction public health activity. In both LMICs and HICs, global climate change (and resulting changes in temperature, rainfall, and Waterborne pathogens that cause enteric and diarrheal disease extreme weather) has
Current Environmental Health Reports – Springer Journals
Published: Apr 20, 2018
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