Quantitative Dual Contrast CT Technique for Evaluation of Articular Cartilage Properties

Quantitative Dual Contrast CT Technique for Evaluation of Articular Cartilage Properties Impact injuries of cartilage may initiate post-traumatic degeneration, making early detection of injury imperative for timely surgical or pharmaceutical interventions. Cationic (positively-charged) CT contrast agents detect loss of cartilage proteoglycans (PGs) more sensitively than anionic (negatively-charged) or non-ionic (non-charged, i.e., electrically neutral) agents. However, degeneration related loss of PGs and increase in water content have opposite effects on the diffusion of the cationic agent, lowering its sensitivity. In contrast to cationic agents, diffusion of non-ionic agents is governed only by steric hindrance and water content of cartilage. We hypothesize that sensitivity of an iodine(I)-based cationic agent may be enhanced by simultaneous use of a non-ionic gadolinium(Gd)-based agent. We introduce a quantitative dual energy CT technique (QDECT) for simultaneous quantification of two contrast agents in cartilage. We employ this technique to improve the sensitivity of cationic CA4+ (q =+4) by normalizing its partition in cartilage with that of non-ionic gadoteridol. The technique was evaluated with measurements of contrast agent mixtures of known composition and human osteochondral samples (n = 57) after immersion (72 h) in mixture of CA4+ and gadoteridol. Samples were arthroscopically graded and biomechanically tested prior to QDECT (50/100 kV). QDECT determined contrast agent mixture compositions correlated with the true compositions (R 2= 0.99, average error = 2.27%). Normalizing CA4+ partition in cartilage with that of gadoteridol improved correlation with equilibrium modulus (from ρ = 0.701 to 0.795). To conclude, QDECT enables simultaneous quantification of I and Gd contrast agents improving diagnosis of cartilage integrity and biomechanical status. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annals of Biomedical Engineering Springer Journals
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Publisher
Springer US
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 by Biomedical Engineering Society
Subject
Biomedicine; Biomedicine, general; Biomedical Engineering; Biological and Medical Physics, Biophysics; Classical Mechanics; Biochemistry, general
ISSN
0090-6964
eISSN
1573-9686
D.O.I.
10.1007/s10439-018-2013-y
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Impact injuries of cartilage may initiate post-traumatic degeneration, making early detection of injury imperative for timely surgical or pharmaceutical interventions. Cationic (positively-charged) CT contrast agents detect loss of cartilage proteoglycans (PGs) more sensitively than anionic (negatively-charged) or non-ionic (non-charged, i.e., electrically neutral) agents. However, degeneration related loss of PGs and increase in water content have opposite effects on the diffusion of the cationic agent, lowering its sensitivity. In contrast to cationic agents, diffusion of non-ionic agents is governed only by steric hindrance and water content of cartilage. We hypothesize that sensitivity of an iodine(I)-based cationic agent may be enhanced by simultaneous use of a non-ionic gadolinium(Gd)-based agent. We introduce a quantitative dual energy CT technique (QDECT) for simultaneous quantification of two contrast agents in cartilage. We employ this technique to improve the sensitivity of cationic CA4+ (q =+4) by normalizing its partition in cartilage with that of non-ionic gadoteridol. The technique was evaluated with measurements of contrast agent mixtures of known composition and human osteochondral samples (n = 57) after immersion (72 h) in mixture of CA4+ and gadoteridol. Samples were arthroscopically graded and biomechanically tested prior to QDECT (50/100 kV). QDECT determined contrast agent mixture compositions correlated with the true compositions (R 2= 0.99, average error = 2.27%). Normalizing CA4+ partition in cartilage with that of gadoteridol improved correlation with equilibrium modulus (from ρ = 0.701 to 0.795). To conclude, QDECT enables simultaneous quantification of I and Gd contrast agents improving diagnosis of cartilage integrity and biomechanical status.

Journal

Annals of Biomedical EngineeringSpringer Journals

Published: Apr 13, 2018

References

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