Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment [saj] pp1003-sebu-474116 November 19, 2003 22:37 Style ﬁle version Nov 28th, 2002
Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, Vol. 16, No. 1, January 2004 (
Psychopathy and Sexual Deviance in Treated
Rapists: Association With Sexual and
Corine de Ruiter,
and Vivienne de Vogel
This study examined the role of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D.
Hare, 1991) and sexual deviance scores in predicting recidivism in a sample of 94
convicted rapists involuntarily admitted to a Dutch forensic psychiatric hospital
between 1975 and 1996. The predictive utility of grouping offenders based on the
combination of psychopathy and sexual deviance was also investigated. Measures
were coded from prerelease institutional records. Recidivism (reconviction) data
were retrieved from the Judicial Documentation Register of the Ministry of Jus-
tice and were related to PCL-R and sexual deviance scores. The follow-up period
after release ranged up to 23.5 years (M = 11.8 years). Base rates for sexual,
violent nonsexual, violent (including sexual), and general recidivism were 34%,
47%, 55%, and 73%, respectively. For all types of offending, offenders scoring
high on the PCL-R (≥26) were signiﬁcantly more often reconvicted than other
offenders. The sexual deviance score was found to be a signiﬁcant predictor of
sexual reconviction. Survival analyses provided considerable evidence that psy-
chopathic sexoffenders with sexualdeviant preferences are at substantiallygreater
risk of committing new sexual offenses than psychopathic offenders without de-
viant preferences or nonpsychopathic offenders with or without sexual deviance.
The ﬁndings are discussed in terms of their practical and clinical implications.
KEY WORDS: psychopathy; PCL-R; sexual deviance; rapists; recidivism; reconviction.
An abbreviated version of this article was presented at the Third Annual Meeting of the International
Association of Forensic Mental Health Services, Miami, Florida, April 9, 2003.
Department of Research, Dr. Henri van der Hoeven Kliniek, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction (Trimbos-institute), Utrecht, The Netherlands.
To whom correspondence should be addressed at Department of Research, Dr. Henri van der Hoeven
Kliniek, P.O. Box 174, 3500 AD Utrecht, The Netherlands; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
2004 Plenum Publishing Corporation