ISSN 10630740, Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 2016, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 100–101. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.
Original Russian Text © V.N. Dolganov, T.T. Ginanova, 2016, published in Biologiya Morya.
The family Pseudocarchariidae
consists only of
one genus and species, the crocodile shark
(Matsubara, 1936), which inhabit
ing tropical and subtropical waters of the World Ocean
from the surface to the depth of 590 m [3, 5]. Reaching
a length of 118 cm, it is the smallest of lamnoid sharks.
Males become mature at a body length of 73–110 cm;
females become mature at 89–102 cm; the body
length of newborn individuals is 40–45 cm [3, 5]. The
waters off southern Japan were considered to be the
northern boundary of the distribution range of
. However, an adult female of this
species, which was caught off the South Kuril Islands
during the cruise on the R/V
in 1979, was
found as a result of examination of the collection that
was deposited at the Pacific Research Fisheries Cen
ter. Due to this, both the distribution range of
and the knowledge of its ecology can be
1 ind. TL 104.5 cm, mature female.
Pacific coast of the South Kuril Islands, 43°44
E, 30.09.1979, R/V
, pelagic trawl,
depth 3000–4000 m, catch depth 20 m, surface water
temperature 19.6°C. Collected by V.N. Dolganov.
Body elongated, torpedoshaped.
Snout pointed. Eyes relatively large, round. Nares
simple, located closer to mouth than to snout tip.
Small spiracles slightly closer to eyes than to first gill
slits. Gill slits very large; their lower end at the level of
pectoral fin base. Pectoral fin does not reach origin of
first dorsal fin base. Second dorsal fin originates
slightly anterior to rear end of ventral fin base. Anal fin
originates at vertical line through rear end of second
dorsal fin base. Upper lobe of caudal fin approximately
two lengths of lower lobe. Subcaudal notch well devel
oped. Upper precaudal pit present; lower precaudal pit
weakly pronounced. Lateral keels absent.
Measurements of the caught shark (mm).
from snout tip to first dorsal fin, 375; to second dorsal
fin, 675; to upper precaudal pit, 789; to pectoral fins,
228; to ventral fins, 615. Snout length to eyes, 58; to
mouth, 67; to nares, 44. Head length to first gill slit,
164; to fifth gill slit, 228. Eye diameter, 25; interorbital
distance, 33; internarial distance, 24. Gill slit length:
first, 65; third, 68; fifth, 71. Mouth width, 55; mouth
height, 34. Fin base length: first dorsal, 104; second
dorsal, 47; ventral, 64; anal, 24. Fin height: first dorsal,
49; second dorsal, 25; anal, 17. Length of anterior
margin of pectoral fins, 110; anterior margin of ventral
fins, 57; upper lobe of caudal fin, 257; lower lobe, 123.
Distance: interdorsal, 196; second dorsal fin base to
tail, 67; pectoral fin origin to ventral fin origin, 372;
ventral fin origin to tail origin, 185.
Number of truncal vertebrae 57; caudal peduncle
vertebrae 27; caudal 71; total 155. Number of turns of
intestinal spiral valve 27; rows of heart valves 2.
Anterior teeth narrow, awllike; their cross section
round. Lateral and posterior teeth moderately blade
shaped. Tooth roots massive. Third tooth of upper jaw
(intermediate) significantly smaller than second and
fourth teeth. Lateral teeth have weakly pronounced
accessory denticles in addition to main tip. Dental for
mula uniform for left and right halves of jaws: 2–1–
Liver bilobate. Gonads equal in length; anterior
portion thickened. Eggs very small; a few of the eggs up
Pseudocarchariidae, a Family of Lamnoid Sharks
that are New to the Fauna of Russia
V. N. Dolganov
and T. T. Ginanova
Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Pal’chevskogo 17, Vladivostok, 690041 Russia
Primorsky Aquarium, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690922 Russia
Received June 4, 2015
—A specimen of the crocodile shark
(TL 104.5 cm), which was caught
off the southern Kuril Islands for the first time in Russian waters, is described.
southern Kuril Islands, morphometric parameters, body vertebrae,
caudal vertebrae, teeth, intestinal valve