J. Membrane Biol. 182, 159–169 (2001) The Journal of DOI: 10.1007/s00232-001-0040-2 Membrane Biology © Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 2001 Topical Review V.Th.G. Schoonderwoert and G.J.M. Martens Department of Animal Physiology, University of Nijmegen, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 28, 193RT, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands Received: 9 November 2000/Revised: 11 January 2001 Introduction a device for active transport; it controls the transport of nutrients and waste products, and generates differences Protons are pumped into intracellular compartments in ion concentrations between the outside and inside of (e.g., lysosomes, endosomes, coated vesicles, synaptic the membrane-enclosed environment. Protons are vesicles and secretory granules) to create a proton motive pumped across a membrane by proton-ATPases that hy- force across the membrane or to acidify the lumen, which drolyze ATP, thereby generating a proton-motive force is necessary to perform cellular processes such as hydro- (pmf). Alternatively, the ATPases may utilize the en- lysis of macromolecules, receptor-mediated endocytosis ergy of the pmf for ATP formation . Proton- and processing of preproproteins. The proton gradient is ATPases have been divided into three main classes, established and maintained by the H -pumping vacuolar- namely P-, F- and V-ATPases . The P-type H - type ATPase (V-ATPase). Here we discuss
The Journal of Membrane Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Aug 1, 2001
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