Two protocols of quantum key agreement (QKA) that solely use Bell state and Bell measurement are proposed. The first protocol of QKA proposed here is designed for two-party QKA, whereas the second protocol is designed for multi-party QKA. The proposed protocols are also generalized to implement QKA using a set of multi-partite entangled states (e.g., 4-qubit cluster state and $$\Omega $$ Ω state). Security of these protocols arises from the monogamy of entanglement. This is in contrast to the existing protocols of QKA where security arises from the use of non-orthogonal state (non-commutativity principle). Further, it is shown that all the quantum systems that are useful for implementation of quantum dialogue and most of the protocols of secure direct quantum communication can be modified to implement protocols of QKA.
Quantum Information Processing – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 3, 2014
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