Arch Virol (2005) 150: 967–979
Protective immune response against foot-and-mouth
disease virus challenge in guinea pigs vaccinated
with recombinant P1 polyprotein
expressed in Pichia pastoris
V. Balamurugan, R. Renji, G. Venkatesh, G. R. Reddy,
S. P. Nair, K. Ganesh, and V. V. S. Suryanarayana
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Hebbal, Bangalore, India
Received January 20, 2004; accepted October 29, 2004
Published online January 19, 2005
Summary. Vaccination of the susceptible livestock with potent, safe and cost
effective vaccine is the primary requirement to control foot-and-mouth disease
(FMD) in an endemic country. In this study, an alternative approach was used
in which structural protein genes of all the four serotypes of FMDV (O, Asia 1,
and C) were expressed separately in methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.
The recombinant polyproteins (P1) were characterized by SDS-PAGE and in
Western Blot analysis. Partially puriﬁed protein was used for immunization in
guinea pigs with different adjuvant formulations and immune response studied.
Ninety micrograms of the recombinant protein per monovalent dose was used for
immunization. A single injection of a monovalent or polyvalent vaccine was given
to guinea pigs with various adjuvant combinations viz., Monovalent recombinant
protein either adjuvanted with Montanide-ISA50V or Indigenous oil, Monovalent
recombinant protein mixed with 1/10
dose of inactivated oil-adjuvanted virus
vaccine and Polyvalent recombinant protein with Montanide ISA50V. FMDV spe-
ciﬁc humoral immune response was observed at about 28
day post vaccination.
The immune response as assessed by indirect ELISA and Serum neutralization
test titres was found to be 320–640 and 16–32, respectively. When challenged with
virulent homologous type ‘O’ virus, the guinea pigs showed protective C index
of 2.01,1.81, 2.56 and 2.48, respectively, with above said adjuvant combinations.
The study has shown that yeast-expressed FMDV P1 polyprotein in a single dose
could elicit a protective immune response in guinea pigs, and this could be a
possible future vaccine candidate in homologous host.
This article is dedicated in memory of late Dr. S. M. Lal.