To clarify the involvement of primitive non-specific immune responses in the protective effects of a live, attenuated virus, each two rhesus macaques were intravenously immunized with an attenuated chimeric simian and human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in which the nef gene was deleted (SHIV-NI) or a SHIV having human IFN-γ inserted into the deleted nef region (SHIV IFN-γ). These immunized monkeys were intravenously challenged with a heterologous pathogenic SHIV (SHIV-C2/1) at four weeks post immunization (wpi). After vaccination, one of each SHIV-NI- or SHIV IFN-γ-immunized monkeys showed a low level of SIV Gag-specific lymphocyte proliferative response but did not have neutralizing antibodies to both the parental and challenge viruses. After the challenge, the plasma viral RNA loads of the challenge virus were suppressed in all the immunized monkeys and the severe CD4 + T cell loss observed in the unimmunized monkeys was not found. Thus, both SHIV IFN-γ and SHIV-NI infections could prevent from disease progression by a pathogenic virus early after immunization, suggesting that primitive non-specific immune response elicited by attenuated virus infection, in addition to highly acquired virus-specific immunity, contributes to the protective effect against a pathogenic virus.
Archives of Virology – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 1, 2004
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