Protection of CCl
-induced hepatotoxicity by Trachyspermum ammi
essential oil in mice
Mohammad Mahdi Zangeneh
Mohammad Hosein Farzaei
Received: 15 February 2018 /Accepted: 17 May 2018
Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018
Ethnomedicinal plants are considered as new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to chemical drugs.
Trachyspermum ammi (Ta) has been used in medicine as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiparasitical, antiviral, antifungal,
and antibacterial agent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of Ta essential oil against CCl
induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Thirty-five mice were divided into five groups (n = 7). Group I served as negative control,
received 1 mL/kg olive oil intraperitoneally and 0.5 mL distilled water through gavage. Group II served as positive control,
received 1 mg/kg CCl
mixed with olive oil in the ratio of 5:5, intraperitoneally, and 0.5 mL distilled water orally. Groups III, IV,
and V received CCl
mixed with olive oil in the ratio of 5:5 intraperitoneally and 200, 800, and 1600 μg/kg of Ta essential oil
through gavage for 45 consecutive days. The results showed that thymol (44.2%), p-cymene (25.7%), and γ-terpinene (25.1%)
are the main components of Ta essential oil. Different doses of Ta essential oil could significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the raised
levels of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase toward control levels. The volume and weight of the liver, and
volume of hepatocytes and sinusoids which were increased significantly (p < 0.05) in positive control group compared to the
negative control group, were significantly decreased with high dose of Ta essential oil (1600 μg/kg) (p < 0.05). The volume of
central veins, portal veins, hepatic arteries, and bile ducts did not have significant changes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Ta essential
oil can protect hepatic tissue and regulate liver enzymes in CCl
-induced hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant compounds.
Keywords Trachyspermum ammi
The liver is the main detoxifying organ in the body (Alia et al.
2003). Most of the hepatotoxic chemicals damnify the liver.
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl
) is a toxic substance for most cells
of the body especially hepatocytes (Hagh-Nazari et al. 2017).
Different documented case studies have established that CCl
produces hepatic disease with a changed antioxidant status in
humans (Alia et al. 2003). In experimental studies, the CCl
induced acute hepatotoxicity models have been applied to
assess the hepatoprotective properties of different medicinal
plants. Research on hepatoprotective agents is one of the ad-
vanced fields in recent biomedical sciences. The expensive
costs of modern medicines indicate that alternative strategies
are needed for better management of diseases and their related
problems (Loguercio and Federico 2003; Recknagel et al.
1991; Weber et al. 2003).
Ethnomedicinal plants are popular remedies used by a ma-
jority of the world’s population (Tahvilian et al. 2017a;
Goodarzi et al. 2017;Ghashghaiietal.2017; Goorani et al.
2018). The impression of ethnomedicinal plants in prevention
and treatment of diseases is irrecusable (Zangeneh et al. 2018;
Najafi et al. 2017). Phytochemical studies have attracted the
consideration of plant researchers due to the development of
modern methods (such as producing essential oil of plants)
(Foroughi et al. 2016a;Moradietal.2017a;Zangenehetal.
2017a). Essential oil is a condensate hydrophobic liquid in-
cluding aromatic compounds from plants (Tahvilian et al.
2017b; Foroughi et al. 2017). Essential oils could be extracted
from several parts such as roots, stems, leaves, and flowers
* Mohammad Mahdi Zangeneh
Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy,
Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Razi
University, Kermanshah, Iran
Comparative Clinical Pathology