Integration of the methods of contemporary genetics and biotechnology into the breeding process is assessed, and the potential role and efficacy of genome editing as a novel approach is discussed. Use of molecular (DNA) markers for breeding was proposed more than 30 years ago. Nowadays, they are widely used as an accessory tool in order to select plants by mono- and olygogenic traits. Presently, the genomic approaches are actively introduced into the breeding processes owing to automatization of DNA polymorphism analyses and development of comparatively cheap methods of DNA sequencing. These approaches provide effective selection by complex quantitative traits, and are based on the full-genome genotyping of the breeding material. Moreover, biotechnological tools, such as doubled haploids production, which provides fast obtainment of homozygotes, are widely used in plant breeding. Use of genomic and biotechnological approaches makes the development of varieties less time consuming. It also decreases the cultivated areas and financial expenditures required for accomplishment of the breeding process. However, the capacities of modern breeding are not limited to only these advantages. Experiments carried out on plants about 10 years ago provided the first data on genome editing. In the last two years, we have observed a sharp increase in the number of publications that report about successful experiments aimed at plant genome editing owing to the use of the relatively simple and convenient CRISPR/Cas9 system. The goal of some of these experiments was to modify agriculturally valuable genes of cultivated plants, such as potato, cabbage, tomato, maize, rice, wheat, barley, soybean and sorghum. These studies show that it is possible to obtain nontransgenic plants carrying stably inherited, specifically determined mutations using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. This possibility offers the challenge to obtain varieties with predetermined mono- and olygogenic traits.
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 30, 2016
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