ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 9, pp. 1191−1200. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2014.
Original Russian Text © V.A. Kuzmenko, A.I. Rusanova, O.I. Odintsova, 2014, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 9, pp. 1193−1203.
Properties of Synthetic Polyelectrolytes and Prospects
for Their Use for Finishing of Textile Materials
V. A. Kuzmenko, A. I. Rusanova, and O. I. Odintsova
Research Institute of Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Chemical Processes, Ivanovo State University
of Chemical Technology, pr. Sheremetevskii 7, Ivanovo, 153000 Russia
Received June 5, 2014
Abstract—The review covers the literature concerning modiﬁ cation of textile material surfaces with synthetic
polyelectrolytres and describes the nature of the polymers used and the character of their interaction with each
other, with the ﬁ ber, and with the functional substance. The main lines of modern studies dealing with the use of
synthetic polyelectrolytes for electrostatic self-assembly of nanolayers on the surface of textile materials and for
microencapsulation of functional (aromatizing) substances on a textile material are considered.
The development of technologies for production of
cosmetic and medical textiles favorably acting on human
health is a popular line of research in the ﬁ eld of light
industry. Much attention is paid now to the deposition
of nanocoatings on textile materials by various methods,
among which the method of layer-by-layer self-assembly
based on adsorption of alternating oppositely charged
polyelectrolyte macromolecules shows much promise.
Polyelectrolytes are macromolecular compounds
whose macromolecules contain ionizable groups capable
of dissociation into ions in solutions . Such compounds
widely occur in the nature; they include proteins, pectins,
polypeptides, polysaccharides, and various vegetable
resins. Many of these compounds play an important role
in biochemical processes occurring in living bodies.
There are also synthetic polyelectrolytes, and the ﬁ eld
of their application steadily expands. A polyelectrolyte
macromolecule in solution is a polyion surrounded by an
equivalent amount of counterions (small ions with charges
of opposite sign). The polyion size is larger than that of
the counterions by several orders of magnitude [2–5].
Depending on the nature of ionizable groups, poly-
electrolytes can be subdivided into three types: polyacids
(containing an acid group, e.g., –СООН), polybases
(containing a base group, e.g.,–NH
), and polyampho-
lytes (containing acid and base groups simultaneously,
e.g., proteins containing –COO
The polyelectrolytes frequently used for electrostatic
self-assembly are shown in Fig. 1 .
Polyelectrolytes, except proteins, are characterized
by high density of the arrangement of ionizable groups:
usually one ionizable group per chain unit. Therefore,
polyelectrolyte macromolecules can be involved in strong
electrostatic interactions in solutions, leading to strong
deformation of the chains of ﬂ exible molecules. Such
deformation depends on the degree of ionization of the
groups, which, in turn, depends on pH of the solution and
on the presence of low-molecular-weight electrolytes in
the system. The presence of recurrent ionizable groups
throughout the length of the macromolecule affects
the conformational behavior and other properties of
macromolecular compounds in solutions. Owing to the
repulsion of likely charged groups, polyions occupy a
considerably larger volume than do the corresponding
electrically neutral macromolecules, and the extent of
asymmetry in them is also considerably higher .
The modern theories of polyelectrolyte solutions are
mainly based on the concept of counterion condensation,
considered in detail in Manning’s theory [10–12].